Wonderlandscape – Switzerland and the European Landscape Tradition

仙境之景——瑞士与欧洲的“风景”探源

/Michael Jakob

translated by Ling Gu

Live @ Min Sheng Art Museum, 7pm on 26th July, Thursday, 2012 

1

In Europe – differently from China –, landscapeis a relatively recent invention. Originally, landscape meant exclusively (from the 15th to the 18th century) landscape painting. The European landscape begins somewhere around 1350, with a very important work, Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s Good Government fresco in Siena, Italy.

欧洲与中国不同,风景相对而言是种较新的发明。本来,风景所指仅限于15-18世纪的风景画。欧洲的风景起源于14世纪50年代的一副非常重要的画作,即Ambrogio Lorenzetti的《好政府》(1338-9),绘就了当时意大利锡耶纳清新的城市风景。

 

This complex painting shows already that landscape is both an invention of the city (of urban intelligence) and controlled by it (landscape is that outside the city walls, extramuros). Technically the Siena wall painting is not exactly a landscape, but the sum of topographical elements. Only from the 15th century on can we speak of landscape in the full sense that is a piece of land represented as given from a precise point of view. Whether this happens first in Italy or in the Netherlands is still the object of controversy.

这幅繁复精密的绘画已然展现了风景——既得缘于城市的发明(所谓城市规划),亦受制于它(所谓风景被围在城墙之外)。严格意义上来说,锡耶纳的城墙画并称不上风景,只是地形元素的集成。直到15世纪,我们才有了真正意义上的风景,也就是定点透视面向的某片土地。而其发源地究竟是在意大利还是荷兰仍存争议。

 

More important to our subject is the fact that quite early mountains become a part of the new genre of landscape. We find them in fact Leonardo da Vinci (his early drawing, 1473; the Alps drawings, etc.) and in Joachim Patinir’s works. We approach already Swiss territory (today’s Swiss territory) with the very first recognizable landscape painting: Konrad Witz’s The miraculous drought of the fishes. It shows a precise landscape in Switzerland, that is the city of Geneva, lake Geneva and the mountains (le Mole) in its immediate vicinity.

我们今天讲座主题中最重要的一点是:古老山脉如何成为风景新定义中的一个组成。我们可以在莱昂纳多·达·芬奇创作于1473年的早期阿尔卑斯山区绘画、以及Joachim Patinir的画作中发现这一点。我们早已在Konrad Witz的画作《捕鱼神迹》中见过典型的瑞士地貌,而画中展现的悬崖恰坐落于瑞士日内瓦湖与摩尔山附近。

 

2

Again, before the 18th century, in Europe the term “landscape” is restricted to painting. The ‘real’ experience of landscapes, the possibility to enjoy the landscapes we encounter when we walk in certain places, begins only late. It took a long time for people to learn how to interpret and access nature, and only once they had the mental categories enabling them to frame nature did they actually create landscapes.

再次强调,18世纪以前的欧洲,风景一词仅限于绘画。走进大自然切身体会自然风景的机会到很晚才出现。人们花费很长时间才掌握到理解并走入自然的方法,且直到他们在认识分类中将自然单独分门别类,始有真正意义上的风景创造。

 

The process took such a long time for a fundamental reason: nature needed to be interpreted in a positive way in order not to raise fear and to be enjoyed as an aesthetic phenomenon. Such an access was impossible as long as nature was seen as something, globally, negative.

之所以花费这么久,其实归结于一个非常根本的原因:自然需要以一种积极的姿态来被诠释,从而避免造成不必要的惶恐,并使观者能够尽情将之作为一种审美对象加以欣赏。当全球各地都视自然为某种负面消极的存在时,这种态度是不可能成立的。

 

Negative, because for the Christian culture Nature altogether is stigmatized by (human) sin: Adam and Eve left paradise and had to live in an imperfect, cruel and sometimes gruesome nature; mankind after the Deluge started in a hostile environment – in a “naturalapsa” (Nature marked by the fall).

负面消极是因为基督教文化中“自然”作为一个整体概念被人为地丑化为一种罪恶:亚当和夏娃在被驱逐天堂后被迫下放到严酷、恶劣、甚而阴森可怖的自然中;大洪水之后的人类在一片混沌——所谓“堕落的自然”中从头来过。

 

Everything linked to the senses, but even to life and sexuality – that is Nature – was considered for more then a millennium as a source of danger: observing Nature, curiosity for it, was a capital sin. Consequently the Christian imagination thought that wild Nature was full of diabolic forces: dragons, devils, and other fantastic animals embodying the Devil.

与七情六欲、生命与性爱——也即“自然”相关的一切在逾千年中都被认作是险恶之源:观察自然并好奇之,是为原罪。因而基督教想象中的野性自然充斥着恶势力:喷火龙、魔鬼与其他魔鬼附身的妖魔鬼怪。

 

As long as people trembled in front of nature (which they did not know) and as long as they thought that it was the realm of negativity, the access to it as something beautiful was impossible. The Swiss Alps (almost), which everybody admires today where until the 18th century the territory of Evil (logically they did not interest anyone, except few scientists or businessmen).

只要人们还无知地在大自然面前战栗恐惧,只要人们还将之视作极恶之地,那看作是美妙之境欣然探访就显然是不可能的事。今日大家都慕名访之的瑞士阿尔卑斯山直到18世纪都还被视作魔鬼之域(顺理成章地,没什么人对它感兴趣,除了少数科学家与商人)。

 

The change in the attitude towards nature – and the possibility of landscape – is normally linked with the physico-theological movement of the Cambridge Platonists during the 17th century. In reality, there exists, here too, an important Swiss prehistory: the so called Zurich Humanists of the 16th century, first of all the famous scholar and physician Conrad Gesner admitted already around 1540 their “admiration of the wild mountains”. Having a first hand knowledge of the Alps (he would, as a practitioner, look for Alpine plants to use in medicine) and having, as a Renaissance man, read important Greek and Roman sources, Gesner could interpret Nature – and especially the pristine Nature of his native country, Switzerland – in a new and free way.

对自然态度的改变及其成为风景的可能性常同17世纪剑桥柏拉图派学者所发起的物理神学运动相联系。实际上,早在16世纪在瑞士这个国家诞生之前就有一匹所谓苏黎世人本主义学者就提出过类似观点,其中首当其冲的是著名学者与医生Conrad Gesner。16世纪40年代,他们就已公开其对“野外群山的仰慕”。作为一名医生,Gesner常上山采药,因而对阿尔卑斯了如指掌;同时,作为文艺复兴生人,他饱读古希腊罗马的经典著作,因而Gesner得以一种全新而自由的方式读懂了自然——尤其是他的家乡瑞士那质朴的自然。

 

3

The necessary and fundamental element in accessing nature, and thus ‘creating’ landscapes, that is framing certain places and enjoying looking at them, is culture. Culture creates Nature, both in Europe and elsewhere. I like to say sometimes to our students that there is nothing more artificial or manmade as Nature. The desire or love for Nature is not natural or given: it is the result of very complex and long cultural processes.

走入自然从而“创造”自然的先决条件是文化,正是文化将自然入画并欣赏之。文化创造自然,放之欧洲及四海皆准。我有时会告诉学生们,没什么比自然更人工的了。对自然的热望与挚爱并非与生俱来:它实在是非常复杂且漫长的文化进程的产物。

 

The most relevant figures in accessing nature – wild, savage Nature, not domesticated Nature, where this problem does not exist – were artists and poets. They were particularly important in the context of the aesthetics of the sublime. Caspar Wolf, a famous Swiss painter for instance, made several trips into the mountains because someone asked him to do so for commercial reasons. It was not his curiosity, but a certain discourse interested in “sublime” objects that made it possible to paint waterfalls, mountain lakes, precipices, etc. – subjects that few decades earlier would not have interested anyone.

与走入自然关系最密切的人要数艺术家和诗人,这里的自然仅指野性蛮荒的自然、而非家养的自然(家养的就没这么多问题了)。就崇高美学的语境而言他们尤其重要。拿瑞士知名画家Caspar Wolf来说吧,他因商业邀约而多次进山。他出于对崇高美学特定探讨的兴趣、而非单纯的好奇才绘制了那些瀑布飞流、山川湖泊、悬崖峭壁,而早几十年肯定没人会对这些感兴趣。

 

Two central intellectual figures of the 18th century were not only Swiss (by birth), but directly linked to the ‘landscaping’ of Switzerland: Albrecht von Haller and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Haller was the first European author (in reality he was a very important and famous scientists with over 30000 publications on his account!) who tried to invent a language in order to describe poetically Nature. For him Nature did not mean any more something only physical or ontological (in the Greek sense: asking for the essence of Nature), but an observable reality (he experienced it during an excursion in 1728). Rousseau – influenced by Haller – identifies in his famous novel La nouvelle Héloïse(an European bestseller, 1761) the Alpine valleys as outstanding places, where exceptional people were living (exceptional because they were free compared to the ‘decadent’ inhabitants of Europe elsewhere). Both Haller and Rousseau were essential for the transformation of Switzerland in the conscience of travellers throughout the 18th century: people actually started to visit places in Switzerland not because they were a priori beautiful or worthwhile to look at, but because the two writers had spoken with enthusiasm about them.

18世纪的两位广受追捧的智者Albrecht von Haller与Jean-Jacques Rousseau不仅是土生土长的瑞士人,更对瑞士的“风景化”有着直接影响。Haller是一位欧洲作家(事实上他也是一名非常著名的科学家,著有逾三万部出版物!),他试图发明一种语言只为诗意地描述自然。对他而言,自然不仅是物理或本体存在(ontological在希腊语中意为:追求自然的本质),更是可被观察的现实(他在1728年的一次远足中对此深有体会)。Rousseau则受Haller的影响,在其著名小说《新埃洛伊兹》(1761,欧洲畅销小说)中,将阿尔卑斯的山谷描述为世外桃源,生活在那里的人与世无争,比欧洲其他地区“颓废”的居民们自由多了。Haller与Rousseau对改变瑞士在18世纪旅行者心目中的地位起到了不可或缺的作用:人们开始前往瑞士旅行,不仅因为美景或值得一看,更因为这两位作家对瑞士风景的溢美之词。

 

4

There is still another tradition to mention in order to understand how Switzerland became Switzerland, both for the Swiss and for the people who came to visit the country. Tourism as a cultural form is directly linked to Switzerland, because at the same time when the Grand Tour (the aristocratic voyages of the happy few oriented towards Italy and the Classical culture) became tourism (it changed both in quantitative and qualitative terms: it became tourism for the masses and something organized) the Swiss Alps became the center of attention.

让瑞士人及前往瑞士的外来人更好地理解瑞士是如何成为瑞士的,有另一重要的渊源值得一提。旅游作为一种文化形式与瑞士有着直接的联系,当时壮游(Grand Tour,被戏称为“快乐的少数”的英国青年贵族把前往意大利探访经典文化作为成人礼)正泛化为旅游(经历了质变和量变,手头宽裕的平民阶层也可负担并自行组织旅行),瑞士阿尔卑斯山区也逐渐成为注目的焦点。

 

This happens by the way in exactly the same period when some young Englishmen started to discover the high alpine valleys giving rise to alpinism. (The discovery of the Mont Blanc and the interest to climb it starts in Geneva!)

也正因这类关注,一些英国青年贵族在阿尔卑斯山区探访到高山峡谷,爬山这一运动才得以降生。(对白朗峰的发现与爬山的兴致恰始于日内瓦!)

 

However, throughout the 18th century, Switzerland becomes an international fashion: everyone wants to see the beauties of the country at the heart of Europe. At that time Switzerland is a sort of real or life-size “album”: to visit it, means to discover specific waterfalls, torrents, peaks, vista points, precipices, glaciers, chalets, etc. Especially in the second half of the 18th century Switzerland functions as a catalogue of the most beautiful, picturesque and sublime places on earth.

然而瑞士成为全球潮流去处的风尚贯穿了整个18世纪:所有人都想一睹这一欧洲腹地的美貌。当时瑞士好像是一本真实尺寸的三维“画册”:探访瑞士就意味着探访那些瀑布、激流、冰川、险峰、悬崖与山间别墅。尤其在18世纪后半叶,瑞士成为地球上最美、最崇高、最如诗如画的所在与美景的代名词。

 

The fact of focusing on this particular country and its mountains – they become only now a ‘myth’ – has essential consequences for the history of gardens and landscape architecture in Europe (and even outside of Europe). The topoi described, drawn, painted, admired and visited on site – the Lauterbrunnen waterfalls, the view from the Rigi – and generally speaking the “natural” (that is, “the wild”, the typical chaotic assemblage of elements in the alpine landscape) become all the model to be imitated in the new English (or picturesque, irregular, landscape) gardens.

瑞士及其群山只是到了今天才被认为是“神秘的”,而当时对它的关注直接影响了之后欧洲(甚而其他地区)花园与风景建筑的历史。被无数次描绘、赞美与现场探访的劳特布龙嫩瀑布、瑞吉美景与广义“自然”(阿尔卑斯山区独特景观既成的“野性”)全成了新式英国(如诗如画、不规则、风景化)花园的模仿对象。

 

Switzerland has wonderful waterfalls, perfect: we can imitate them and build miniature waterfalls in the garden; it has peaks, well, we can build faux mountains; it has chalets, well, nothing easier than that: let’s build one; it has sinuous rivers and wild paths, this too can be translated into the form of the new parks of the 18th century. (In this sense the landscape of Europe and of other parts of the world has partly been Swissified during the 18th and 19th century.)

瑞士有宏大的瀑布,好:我们可以在花园里模仿建造迷你瀑布;瑞士有山峰,好,造假山;瑞士有山间别墅,好,这最简单了,我们可以学样造一幢;瑞士有奔腾蜿蜒的河流与旁道野径,这也能放到18世纪的新式公园里。(从这层意义上说,18-19世纪欧洲及其他地区的风景都被或多或少地“瑞士化”了。)

 

5

Switzerland has thus functioned as the main experimental terrain of the sublime and the picturesque. Wild nature meant first of all the wildness of the Swiss Alps (its sublimity), while the picturesque meant Swiss chalets, mountain bridges, old roads, etc. Let’s not forget that even the English (essential for all these changes in European history) discovered their interest in their own country only after having intensively traveled and analyzed the picturesque and sublime ‘treasures’ of Switzerland. (It is only almost a century after having known the Alps and how to enjoy them that the British start to discover the Lake District or the Scottish mountains. And it is only after having translated Cox’s book on the Alps that the French writer Ramond de Carbonnière ‘discovers’ the Pyrenees.)

瑞士就这样成为了崇高与优美的代名词。一说野性自然,人们头一个想到的就是瑞士阿尔卑斯山的崇高;提起如诗如画,人们就联想到瑞士的山间别墅、长桥索道、通幽曲径。更别提欧洲历史上述改变的始作俑者——英国人只有在前往风景如画的至圣宝地瑞士多番旅行走访后才开始挖掘他们祖国的美景。(差不多是在知道了阿尔卑斯后的一个世纪,英国人才开始探索本土的湖泊区与苏格兰的群山。也直到Cox关于阿尔卑斯的著作被翻译,法国作家Ramond de Carbonnière才“发现”了比利纽斯山。)

 

I would like to add two brief comments before going on. First of all, one aspect which we  should not underestimate (it is very relevant today too) is what Walter Benjamin termed the “technical reproducibility”. What I mean by this is that Switzerland became so important not only thanks to people actually discovering it first hand, but thanks to an entire ‘mountain’ of images circulating everywhere and making ‘propaganda’ for its peculiarity. Illustrated guide books, etchings, descriptions and other sources disseminated the exceptional quality of Swiss landscapes throughout the world.

我想在进入下一章节前再提两点。其一,我们不应低估瓦尔特·本雅明提出的“机械复制”,这在当今仍十分关键。瑞士之所以成为旅游胜地,不仅要感谢头一批探访瑞士的人,更要感谢相继全球流传的成群成山的图片与文字记录,从手绘的导览手册到蚀刻画等其他形式在全球范围内传播瑞士独一无二的风景。

 

Secondly, the fact that Switzerland became at a certain moment a ‘wonderland’ in terms of landscape – the country where you can admire natural ‘wonders’ – does not imply a sort of natural superiority, on the contrary. (If not, it would always have been regarded as such.) Even the moment of the historical triumph of Swiss landscapes should not been understood in the sense of a ‘Switzerland überalles’ attitude. If Switzerland counted so much and that it was revered in an almost cultic manner, it is so because there was a demand for a country with the purest nature possible, with the highest and wildest peaks, etc. The raise of the Swiss Landscape (and of Switzerland) is in other words a result of ideological processes of the 18th century, of projections and “Erwartungshaltungen”. Switzerland and its pristine Nature have been invented, because this fitted with a specific discourse (a political discourse, linked to the concept of liberty, with the ‘Alpine man’ as freedom incarnated; an aesthetic discourse, linked to the then new concepts of the sublime and picturesque).

其二,作为举世闻名坐拥自然奇观的国家,瑞士已然成为“仙境”的代名词, 但瑞士并非因此而享有特别的优越,其实恰恰相反。即便在有史以来瑞士风景最风光时,也不应将瑞士的风景视作“瑞士的一切”。瑞士广受赞誉的原因不仅来自其纯净的自然风光与广袤的群峦叠嶂。瑞士风景或者说瑞士之所以广受欢迎其实是18世纪意识形态进程的产物——所谓投射与期望。瑞士及其质朴的自然是被发明出来的,因为它完全符合某一特定话语(某一与自由的定义、与被视作自由化身的“阿尔卑斯山民”相关的政治话语;某一与当时这种崇高与优美的全新概念相关的审美话语)。

 

6

Around 1800, the sublime and the picturesque went already to fatigue. The tourists repeat ever and ever again the same circuits. They are part of a powerful economical machine, where even the surprises are programmed in advance. They visit comparable sites and know all too well what they will discover on place. The images promise a lot, something perfect and timeless, and often the reality found on the spot is deceiving. Entire groups of traveling writers work on a global intertext.

19世纪初,这重崇高与优美的风尚渐衰,旅行线路总是重复老套。强大的经济机器让惊喜也都必须事先安排。旅客们在出发前就已对目的地知根知底。图片的完美与永恒让亲临现场的游客们觉得上了当。旅行写手们集体工作在一整套全球互文中。

 

At the same time, the new invention of the panorama privileges the artificial image of the world. This way Switzerland is again immensely popularized and visually disseminated thanks to the very popular panoramic iconography. Everyone can ‘experience’ the Swiss Landscape and share the pleasures previously restricted to those who could actually make the travel.

与此同时,世界全景人工图这项新发明刚刚诞生。这么一来,瑞士热潮再度来袭,瑞士美图漫天飞舞,都归功于热门的全景图。所有人都可以“感受”瑞士风景并分享先前只有亲身旅行者才能观赏到的美景。

 

At the end of the 19th century, Switzerland appears both as a fascinating assemblage of real postcard landscapes and as a false idyll. The idyll has vanished too because of another reality: when we look to Nature in Switzerland, and primarily to the mountains, from 1850 on, we have to get aware that by now everything is manmade. Several important manmade actions on a very large scale transformed radically the landscape, not only the valleys, but the mountains too: the regulation of rivers, deforestation, the train, and, last but not least, the national hdyro-electrical adventure.

19世纪末,瑞士的形象既来自无数明信片上印着的美轮美奂的图景,亦是一首虚假的田园牧歌。说其虚假,因为我们必须意识到,自19世纪50年代以来,瑞士的自然、尤其山脉都是人造的。几次重大的人为改动很大程度上将瑞士风景改头换面,不仅山谷、山川亦未能幸免:河流改道、森林砍伐、火车铺路以及国家水力发电站的建设。

 

Between 1750 and 1850, at the height of European Swissomania, both the travelers and the people who made the marketing for the Swiss Landscape looked still so to speak at God’s landscape. From 1850 on, it is the engineer’s landscape that becomes the Swiss Landscape, which is a landscape marked by new roads, amazing bridges, tunnels, canals, large basins and dams.

1750-1850年间,正值“瑞士工坊”的高峰期,旅游者与推广瑞士风景的生意人都多少尊敬这片神的风景。但1850年后,它沦为了工程师的土地,也成就了今天的瑞士风景,由新铺就的柏油马路、巨大的拉索桥、隧道与运河、宏伟的盆地与水坝组成。

 

The rhetoric of the hydro-electrical industry did a formidable job in marrying the new technological landscape with the old, agricultural and picturesque landscape. With time, people started even to accept almost all the manmade elements as ‘natural’. No one would dare asking today to remove the train from the shore of Lake Geneva or to deconstruct the Jungfraubahn, and not only for economical reasons: these signs of modernity became an integral part of the national landscape. And no one would ask for the demolition of the Grande Dixence, the extraordinary wall dam in the Valais, on the contrary: thousands of people make the pilgrimage up to the dam and enjoy to look down on what mankind has constructed in the heart of the Alps.

新的科技风景与旧的田园风景之联姻离不开水力发电工业的花言巧语。不知不觉间,人们甚而开始全盘接受这些人造“自然”。如今没有谁敢挑战,要把日内瓦湖畔的火车移走、或重建少女峰铁路。这不仅有经济原因,还因为这些现代化的标志已全然融入瑞士风景。也不会有人想将坐落于瓦莱州的超级重力水坝大迪克桑斯水坝拆掉。恰恰相反,成千上万人千里迢迢去朝觐并欣赏这座位于阿尔卑斯腹地的人造庞然大物。

 

It is very interesting to observe that at the exact moment when the traditional landscape of the past is exposed to the massive pressures of modernity, imagination and ideology will reinvent a mythic Switzerland that no more exists. I refer here naturally to the famous figure of Heidi, the young girl growing up with her Grandfather in a wonderful valley of the Grisons. The innocence of the goat milk drinking girl, the effect of the fresh air on her friend Klara, the sense of pride, independence and liberty of her grandfather (a sort of incarnation of the good ‘wild man’ of the Alps) – all this works, becomes an international success story and a national myth at a time when the Nature is definitively controlled by technology, economics and the power of the urban civilization. (The author, Johanna Spyri – she adapted an earlier novel by a German writer, Adelaid: the girl from the Alps, 1830 – writes her novel in Zurich.)

当自然风景彻底暴露在现代化的重压之下,想象与思想将重塑一个不复存在的神话瑞士。写到这儿,我很自然地想到了海蒂,这位知名的小说主人公是一名同爷爷相依为命的小女儿,他们生活在瑞士格劳宾登州的美丽山谷里。这位天真无邪、喝羊奶长大的小姑娘与她的好朋友克拉拉为读者带来的清新之风,以及爷爷的倔强、独立与自由(某种阿尔卑斯善良“野人”的化身)让这篇故事登上全球长期畅销书榜,也成就了一段瑞士神话。因为此书面世之时,瑞士的自然正完完全全地受制于科技、经济与城市化。(《海蒂》的作者Johanna Spyri参考了一位德国作家写于1830年的一本名为《阿德莱德:来自阿尔卑斯山的姑娘》

 

6

Most of the people who visit Switzerland these days don’t realize to what extent everything here is manmade. They are still excited by a “primeval” nature, which is, in reality, a very complex construction. The Alps are an immense artifact, not only on their surface or skin, but inside too. Take the Matterhorn or Cervin, the most famous mountain of Switzerland (it actually belongs to Switzerland and Italy). It became the quintessential image of Alpine beauty only very late, after 1860. Before that date, it was interpreted as bare and ugly. Ruskin had a central role in identifying it as the quintessential mountain and many others followed.

现在到瑞士旅游的大多数人仍怀抱着一睹“原汁原味”自然的激动喜悦,殊不知瑞士的一草一木都几近人造。阿尔卑斯山本就是一件巨大的人工品,由表及里深入骨髓。比如闻名遐迩的马特宏峰(同属于瑞士和意大利),它直到1860年才成为阿尔卑斯地区的招牌,而在此之前,人们都觉得它光秃秃的很丑。约翰·拉斯金是将马特宏峰及其他许多山峰以瑞士代言的角度介绍给世人的核心人物。

 

Today, the Matterhorn is not only a mountain, but a brand image (Toblerone…), and, thanks to Disneyland, itself and the copy at the same time. It is symbolic too for landscape in a postmodern perspective. The Swiss sociologists Bernard Crettaz spoke in relation with the Alps of the tendency of “disneylandization”. The Alps altogether become more and more the same; they look, especially if we look to alpine architecture, everywhere alike, the diversity of the mountain range being thus sacrificed for one mountain model. Switzerland and the Swiss landscape are therefore not only in Switzerland, but outside of the national borders too.

如今马特宏峰不再仅仅是一座山峰,更是一张招贴画(比如印在瑞士三角蜂蜜奶油杏仁糖杂锦的包装上),也得感谢迪士尼把这座山峰设计到他们的logo里。即便在后现代主义看来这片风景亦着实具有标志性。瑞士社会主义学者Bernard Crettaz就曾提出与阿尔卑斯山息息相关的“迪士尼化”的趋势。阿尔卑斯的群山越长越像,尤其是阿尔卑斯山区的建筑,也都建得差不多。原本风姿各异的群山就这样被牺牲为一座山峰的仿制模型。瑞士与瑞士风景也随即走出国门了。

 

What I want to state in conclusion is that ‘the Swiss landscape’ does not exist. What exists, is a cultural process, a complicated development with ups and downs, a non-linear process with manifold aspects. This metamorphosis of the Swiss landscape (or, of landscape in Switzerland) is regulated by political, economical, aesthetic and religious discourse. But the Überbau, the dominant superstructure (in order to cite Marx), is itself dialectically linked to the development of infrastructures. The Swiss Landscape is, at least from 1850 onwards, a landscape of roads, canals, power plants, bridges, and so on.

所以我的结论是,所谓的“瑞士风景”并不存在。留下的是一段文化进程,一段跌宕起伏、错综复杂的发展史,一段多方面、非线性的进行时。瑞士风景的变形受力于政治、经济、审美与宗教。但(借用马克思的)“上层建筑”本身同样辩证地与基础设施建设相维系。瑞士风景,至少从1850年算起,是有道路、运河、发电站、桥梁等组成的。

 

The link between infrastructure and landscape is fundamental and essential, in Switzerland and elsewhere. And that is, alas, normally overlooked. Arguably, the most powerful landscapes of our time – and this have been true in Switzerland for more than a century – are infrastructural landscapes. Landscape has been the terrain where infrastructure rose, but no one cared. Landscape architecture has to deal with infrastructure, and not (only) with small, decorative, alibi like realities. The scope of landscape architecture is no more the garden and the gardening of the world, but the design of everything surrounding our infrastructures. Switzerland is again a fertile terrain in order to understand how this works.

不论在瑞士或其它地区,基础设施同风景之间有着本质关联,唉,这种关联常会被忽视。可以说,我们时代最雄伟的风景正是基础设施建筑风景,过去一个多世纪的瑞士正是如此。风景成为基础设施建筑拔地而起的沃土,但风景本身却没人在乎。风景建筑必须同基础设施相协调,而非小打小闹、装点门脸、临场发挥的现实。风景建筑不再是单纯的园艺,而是围绕着我们的基础设施所展开的一切设计。瑞士也再次成为试验田。

 

There is, for example, a formidable tradition of Swiss bridge-building, where the engineer does not at calculating audacious forms, but really designs them and tries to integrate them in the natural surrounding. During the 20th century, the landscaping of Switzerland had thus Robert Maillart and Christian Menn as its protagonists, and today there is Jürg Conzett.

If we were to ask, where Swiss landscape architecture stands today, I would begin with this tradition, that of the civil engineer, the intelligent compromise between technology and Nature.

比如,瑞士桥梁建造的一项牢不可破的传统:工程师通常不追求形式上的创新,而是致力于务实的设计并试图将桥梁尽可能融入到周遭的自然环境中。20世纪瑞士的美化工程有两位功臣Robert Maillart and Christian Menn,今日的主角则是Jürg Conzett。

要问瑞士景观建筑在当今的地位,我会从这项传统讲起,在科技同自然之间找寻智性和谐的土木工程。

 

7

I think that in Switzerland, a very tiny country by its sheer size, there is an extraordinary quality of landscape architecture, and that this quality is related in many ways to what I have tried to sum up before.

I would like to use 3 concepts in order to characterize it: a sense of discipline, rigor and simplicity; good design or form; and ecological awareness. Swiss Landscape architecture is reduced to the essential, and it takes often its force from the essentiality of materials. The stone, used over and over in the works of the Swiss landscape architects, is a metonymy of the mountain, the element surrounding (from far or from near) all these projects. Swiss Landscape architecture privileges the good form, elegant design, obtained by reduction and the search for simplicity. The mineral world – the only richness of the country, except water – is a model for such reduction and an ideal. Finally even the most design oriented approaches of Swiss landscape architects appear ecological, that is aware of the greater context and of the life processes at home in this context. Here, again, Alpine Nature worked both as an experimental terrain and as a model.

我认为就瑞士广袤狭长的地貌而言,其景观建筑的卓越品质与我所讲的内容有着千丝万缕的联系。

我想以三个关键词来概括这一品质:规律、严谨、简洁,出色的设计或形式,和环保意识。瑞士景观建筑的极致精简从材料的本质获得动力。如作为瑞士景观建筑的常用材料,石材可被视为山的换喻,对多数项目而言随手可及的材料。瑞士景观建筑胜在出色的形式与典雅的设计感,追寻简洁并贯彻之。瑞士除了水之外最为丰厚的资源—矿物质即是这一理想简洁形式的范本。最后,在瑞士景观建筑中,即便是最具设计感的建筑也都遵循环保理念,这亦体现了对生命家园及更广泛的语境的认识。从而阿尔卑斯自然保护区既是试验田、亦是样板地。

 

I am certain that this is an insufficient and much too rapid survey. But this was my intention too: to raise your curiosity and to invite you to get to know more concerning both Swiss Landscape and the richness and variety of Swiss Landscape Architecture.

Many thanks for your attention.

我肯定这篇文章的史实考证远远不够殷实,也太过草率。但它仍符合我的预期,即唤起你们的好奇心,并邀请你们来更多地了解、关心瑞士风景及瑞士景观建筑的丰富及多样性。非常感谢!

Michael Jakob is Professor in History and Theory of Landscape at hepia (Geneva) and Professor of Comparative Literature (Chair) at Grenoble University. He is a Visiting Professor at the GSD, Harvard University. He has taught in the past at several Swiss, Italian, French, American and Spanish universities. His teaching and research focus on landscape theory, aesthetics, the history of vertigo, contemporary theories of perception and the poetics of architecture.

He is the founder and head of COMPAR(A)ISON, an International Journal of Comparative Literature, the chief editor of «di monte in monte», a series of books on mountain culture (Edizioni Tarara’, Verbania), and the head of the Paysages books series with Infolio, the major publishing house of architectural books in Switzerland.

He produced several documentary films for TV (on and with Frank Gehry, Linus Pauling, Bruno Bettelheim, etc.) and has a longstanding experience as a radio journalist.

He has published recently: Le Paysage, Infolio, Gollion 2008 (in Italian: Il paesaggio, Il Mulino, Bologna 2009 ); Il giardino allo specchio. Percorsi tra pittura, cinema e fotografia, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino 2009 (in French: Le jardin et les arts, Infolio, Gollion 2009; in Spanish: El jardín y la representación, Siruela, Madrid 2010); 100 Paysages, Infolio, Gollion 2011.

Jakob received his MA and PhD from Geneva University and his Habilitation (venia legendi) from Bern University.

 

迈克尔·雅各布是日内瓦环境、工程和建筑学院的景观历史理论学教授,格勒诺布尔大学比较文学教授(主席),同时还是哈佛大学设计研究院的客座教授。他曾在瑞士,意大利,法国,美国和西班牙的多所大学任教。他的教学和研究的重点在于景观理论学,美学,当代感知理论和建筑诗学。

他是COMPAR(A)ISON(关于比较文学的一本国际刊物)的创始人兼主任,山文化系列(Edizioni Tarara,Verbania)书籍«di monte in monte»的主编,瑞士的建筑系列书籍Paysages Infolio出版社的主任。

他曾和弗兰克·盖里,鲍林,布鲁诺贝特尔海姆等人合作制作过几部电视纪录片​​,并长期从事电台记者的工作。

最近出版: Le Paysage, Infolio, Gollion 2008 (in Italian: Il paesaggio, Il Mulino, Bologna 2009 ); Il giardino allo specchio. Percorsi tra pittura, cinema e fotografia, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino 2009 (in French: Le jardin et les arts, Infolio, Gollion 2009; in Spanish: El jardín y la representación, Siruela, Madrid 2010); 100 Paysages, Infolio, Gollion 2011.

雅各布在日内瓦大学获得硕士和博士学位,在伯尔尼大学取得了特许任教资格(venia legendi)

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