【个案研究】Juan Genovés

http://www.juangenoves.com/

来源/ArtDaily 顾灵/编译

不论是出于革新西班牙艺术的需要,抑或讨论艺术的功能与社会中艺术家的所处地位,毕业于西班牙瓦伦西亚艺术学院(Valencia Art College)的Juan Genovés从来都是个先锋。他坚信艺术就是改变,他对所处环境的思考一直引领着他参与了诸多战后西班牙艺术的重要运动,包括1949的Los Siete (七), 1956的Parpallós和1960年的Hondo。在参与Hondo艺术小组期间,Genovés为反形式主义的具象绘画开创了新的发展方向,其绘画风格逐渐发展为洋溢挑衅的表现主义。

01 Juan Genovés在工作。摄影: Leonardo Villela. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

上世纪60年代,Genovés曾有一小段创作匮乏期,但很快就柳暗花明。他开始更积极地投身到当时反对Franco政权的运动中去,并开始考虑其绘画中的两个主题: 个体和群体;前者是他在大学研修期间就已惯用的表达,后者他采用平涂色彩与电影风格进行创作。通过来自媒体的图像操控,他实现了对饱含强烈的关于社会妥协的根本现实与对独裁专政的批判的“群体”的表达。而后的80年代,Genovés开始了一个全新的绘画阶段,更专注于城市景观,用一系列降调灰色、蓝色与赭色为孤独铸造空间。

02 Pulsión车道. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

通过在创作中的不断探索和研究,绘画表现的静态运动与“群体”成为其讨论绘画与视觉节奏问题的表达媒介。Genovés获得了多项国际大奖,包括1966年第33届威尼斯双年展的荣誉表彰(the Honourable Mention),1967年第六届圣马力诺双年展的金奖,1968年国际Marzotto奖(意大利),1984年的西班牙国立艺术奖(the Spanish National Art Prize),2002年瓦伦西亚艺术奖(Valencian Art Prize),2005年西班牙文化处因其对艺术的突出贡献而授予其金质奖章。

03 Fluidos流体. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

1930年5月31日,Juan Genovés出生在西班牙瓦伦西亚nº 17 Finlandia大街的一个居民区里。然而在他家的户口本里所注册的出生日期却是6月1日,但朋友们为其庆祝生日常常选在5月30日。他的母亲Maria Candel Muñoz来自一个虔诚的天主教信徒家庭,父亲Juan Genovés Cubells是一名金属雕刻工匠与家具装饰粉漆工,来自一个极左翼的木工贸易联盟成员家庭。他成长在重视文化与艺术教育的家庭氛围中,在其出生的同一年,Genovés一家搬到了同一地区的另一条街上(Micer Mascó Street)。

04 Anillo环. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

1963年,画家José Vento与雕塑家Carlos Sansegundo加入了Hondo艺术小组,同年Hondo也举办了他们的第二个展览,这次展览由马德里国立图书馆画廊艺术协会的友人们组办。是年底,小组解散,这让Genovés 一度深陷低迷,甚至考虑放弃绘画创作;事实上在那之后的一年他都没再动过笔。与此同时,他开始了一系列纯银首饰的设计并亲手制作。对艺术世界的失望之情使他决定将更大的精力投入到反对Franco政权的斗争中,并积极参与当时工人们的抗议运动。也正是这一年,他结识了巴西画廊主Ceres Franco。

05 Distancias距离. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid

1966年,艺术小组Equipo Realidad (现实组) 在瓦伦西亚成立,同年Juan与纽约马尔伯勒(Marlborough)画廊签署了独家代理协议,至今马尔伯勒(Marlborough)画廊依然是Juan的独家代理画廊。

06 Reja格. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid

1978年,Genoves与西班牙艺术家Antonio Saura, Rafael Canogar, Guinovart、艺术评论家José Maria Moreno Galvan及爱妻Carola Torres一起参加了首届拉丁美洲艺术家与艺术评论研讨会,并参与了同期举行的“今日拉丁美洲艺术”展,与许多拉丁美洲艺术家展开深入交流。他为帮助当地艺术家集资,特别创作了一副画作以筹集善款,并首度开始了纸上创作。

07 Eco生态. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid

1994年, Marcelino Botín基金会为Genovés策划了个展,展览项目还包含艺术家亲身参与的工作坊。他曾担任Xativa文化艺术中心主办的第二届Ciutat de Xátiva国际绘画双年展,以及由皮鞋制造商Camper和位于马略卡帕尔玛市的Joan Miró基金会组办的“破鞋”(Used Shoes)展览暨艺术家工作坊项目。Juan明察彼时西班牙社会各个层面的倒退,忧先天下之忧,并尝试从鸟瞰的视角进行绘画创作。然而由于健康原因,其创作频率骤减,但Genovés对人类和环境的忧虑却从未停止。

08 Ribera银行. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid

2005年5月13日,依据西班牙国王Juan Carlos一世颁布的第566/2005号法令,Genovés由于其在艺术领域的杰出贡献被授予金质奖章。颁奖典礼在位于Las Gran Canarias 岛Las Palmas 市的Alfredo Krauss礼堂举行。西班牙皇室成员与文化部长Carmen Calvo联合出席颁奖。同年获得该项荣誉的人士还有女演员Maria Galiana,作家José Luis Sampedro,摄影师Crisina Garcia Rodero,,斗牛士Paco Camino,设计师Carolina Herrera, Amaya Arzuaga与Sara Navarro,歌手Bernardo de Utrera 及其妹妹Fernanda,作家Clara Janés,演员José Luis Gomez舞蹈家与现任西班牙国家芭蕾舞团总监José Antonio,指挥家Odón Alonso,艺术家Ginés Liebana,史学家Carmen Crespo Nogueira,建筑师Dionisio Hernández Gil,巴西歌手Caetano Veloso,女演员Victoria Abril以及致力于古典音乐的杂志Ritmo 和文学杂志Litoral。颁奖典礼上,Juan Carlos一世再一次强调了皇室成员对西班牙文化活动的重视,声明这些奖项全都经过严格审核,授予在各自领域内发挥积极作用、做出突出贡献的专业人士,这不仅是对这些艺术家本身的褒扬,更是对其艺术创造的肯定。

09 Chapapote III. Photo: 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid

为了纪念西班牙共和政体成立75周年,Genovés与其他在文化、政治与艺术领域的杰出人士共同签署了一份名为“骄傲、谦虚与感激”的宣言。他通过FESMAI组织帮助贫困儿童,与Rafael Canogar, Antonio de Felipe 和 Luis Feito等艺术家联手捐赠了多幅画作,这些作品被印成拍卖图录加入2006年第二届艺术慈善拍卖会,此场拍卖会在是年6月15日晚8点于马德里Velazquéz大酒店隆重举行。拍卖所得的全部款项被捐助给拉丁美洲收容孤儿的特立学校。

10 摄影: Leonardo Villela. 版权所属Marlborough Gallery, Madrid

在刚刚结束的第30届西班牙马德里ARCO国际当代艺博会上,西班牙艺术家Juan Genovés获得最佳作品AECA奖,他是第一位获得此奖的在世艺术家,其作品依然由纽约马尔伯勒(Marlborough)画廊度假代理,悬挂在坐落于纽约市第五大街洛德与泰勒(Lord&Taylor)旗舰店的橱窗里。画面以鸟瞰的景象仅呈现匆忙来去的行人,却没有任何建筑、街道、树木。普通的风景却给人十分深刻的视觉印象。

英文原文:

Trained at the Valencia Art College Genovés was always an inquiring painter, concerned both with the need to renovate Spanish art and also with the function of art and the artist in society. His firm conviction that art was transforming, and his concern for his environment lead him to join several important movements in the post war Spanish art scene: Los Siete (The Seven) 1949, Parpallós (1956) and Hondo (1960). It was in this last group that presented a new approach to figurative painting opposing Informalism, that Genovés developed a style of painting that was expressionist and provocative. In this image: Juan Genovés at work. Photo: Leonardo Villela. Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

During the sixties Genovés had a creative crisis which he got over quickly. He became very involved in the opposition movements of the time against the Franco regime. He started to consider two subjects in his painting: the individual which he represented through collage and the crowd which he painted in flat colours and in a cinematographic style. The latter style, which developed into political realism with a strong underlying current of social compromise and criticism of the dictatorship, was achieved by the manipulation of images from the media. In the eighties Genovés started a new period in his painting in which he focused on the urban landscape, reducing it to a chromatic range of greys, blues and ochres to make up spaces of loneliness. In this image: Pulsión. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

In recent years he has investigated, through his work, the static movement in painting and the crowd has become a reference to talk about the problem of painting and visual rhythm. He has been awarded the Honourable Mention at the XXXIII Venice Biennial in 1966, the Gold Medal at the VI San Marino International Biennial in 1967, the International Marzotto Prize in 1968, the Spanish National Art Prize in 1984, the Valencian Art Prize in 2002, the Gold medal for merit in the Arts by the Spanish Culture Department in 2005. In this image: Fluidos. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

Juan Genovés was born in Valencia on the 31st of May at nº 17 Finlandia Street in the neighbourhood of the Great Exhibition. He was, however registered in the family book (book all Spanish families are given when a couple marry to register births and deaths) as being born on the 1st of June and was often congratulated on the 30th of May. His parents were Juan Genovés Cubells an artisan metal engraver and painter decorator of furniture. His mother was Maria Candel Muñoz. His father came from a family with strong ties to the progressive left wing and the woodworkers trade union. His mothers family were practising Catholics. The atmosphere in the home was cultural and artistic. This same year the family moved to Micer Mascó Street in the same district. In this image: Anillo. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

In 1963 The Grupo Hondo has its second show. The painter José Vento and the sculptor Carlos Sansegundo join the group. The exhibition is organised by the Friends of Art Society in the Madrid National Librarys gallery. At the end of the year the group breaks up and this leads to a profound crisis for Genovés who even considers giving up painting. He wont paint for a year. To make ends meet he designs a silver jewellery collection, which he makes with his own hands. Feeling disappointed in the art world he decides to take a decisive role in the resistance to the Franco regime and joins the active workers movements of the time. He makes contact with the Brazilian gallery owner Ceres Franco. In this image: Distancias. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

In 1966, the group Equipo Realidad (Reality Team) is formed in Valencia. Juan signs a contract with the Marlborough Gallery giving them the exclusive rights of his painting which is still valid to this day. He receives a honourable mention at the XXXIII Venice Biennial. In this image: Reja. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

In 1978, along with the Spanish artists Antonio Saura, Rafael Canogar, Guinovart and the art critic José Maria Moreno Galvan and his wife Carola Torres, Genoves attends the First Latin-American meeting of art critics and artists which takes place in Caracas at the same time as the exhibition; Latin American Art Today. He takes part in discussions with Latin-American artists. He makes a drawing to raise money for a group of artists and begins what will be a long period of working on paper. In Spain he paints the poster With the Constitution In this image: Eco. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

In 1994, the Marcelino Botín Foundation organises an exhibition of Genovés work and includes a workshop with the painter in the programme. He is a member of the jury on the Xativa Cultural Arts Centre II International Painting Biennial Ciutat de Xátiva. He takes part in the entertaining exhibition Used Shoes and Artists Workshops organised by the shoe manufacturers Camper in the Pilar and Joan MIró Foundation in Palma, Majorca. Juan is worried by what he sees as a step backwards in many social aspects. He starts to paint from a birds eye perspective. He is laid low by bad health. He is constantly worried about man and his environment. In this image: Ribera. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

On the 13th of May he is awarded the Gold Medal for Merit in the fine arts by King Juan Carlos I by the royal decree 566/2005. The ceremony is held in the Alfredo Krauss auditorium in Las Palmas on the island Las Gran Canarias. Their Royal Highnesses and the Minister for Culture Carmen Calvo give the medals to: Maria Galiana, the actress; the writer José Luis Sampedro; the photographer Crisina Garcia Rodero, the bullfighter Paco Camino, the designers, Carolina Herrera, Amaya Arzuaga and Sara Navarro; the singers Bernardo de Utrera and his sister Fernanda; the writer Clara Janés; the actor José Luis Gomez; the dancer and present director of the Spains National Ballet; José Antonio; the conductor Odón Alonso; the artists Juan Genovés, and Ginés Liebana; the archivist Carmen Crespo Nogueira; the architect Dionisio Hernández Gil, the Brazilian singer Caetano Veloso, the actress Victoria Abril and the magazines Ritmo dedicated to classical music and the literary magazine Litoral. At the ceremony Juan Carlos I once again reiterates the Royal familys commitment to Spanish Cultural activity and emphasizes that these medals are to reward the dynamic and brilliant careers which are not only praiseworthy but in each case represent a body of work of excellence. In this image: Chapapote III. Photo: Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Spanish Republic Juan signs a manifesto titled With pride, modesty and gratitude along with other prominent members from the spheres of culture, politics and the arts. He also works with the association FESMAI, to help children, by donating several works along with Rafael Canogar, Antonio de Felipe and Luis Feito, which will be in the catalogue for the II Charity Art Auction 2006, which is held at the Gran Hotel Velazquéz, in Madrid on the 15th June at 8 pm. The money raised will all be donated to schools with which Fesmai collaborate, who take in abandoned children throughout Latin America. In this image: Juan Genovés at work. Photo: Leonardo Villela. Courtesy Marlborough Gallery, Madrid.

 

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