Art from the Collections of “la Caixa” Foundation and MACBA on view at the Guggenheim

古根海姆:安全基金会(Fundación La Caixa)及巴塞罗那当代艺术馆(MACBA)收藏展

来源:ArtDaily

编译:顾灵

展览:倒镜(inverted mirror):安全基金会(Fundación La Caixa)及巴塞罗那当代艺术馆(MACBA)收藏展

展馆:古根海姆毕尔巴鄂馆,西班牙巴斯克省

展期:2012年01月31日-09月02日

古根海姆毕尔巴鄂馆(Guggenheim Museum Bilbao)举行“倒镜:安全基金会(Fundación La Caixa)及巴塞罗那当代艺术馆(MACBA)收藏展”(The Inverted Mirror: Art from the Collections of Fundación La Caixa and MACBA),这是一场超级展览,网罗了来自西班牙两大当代艺术收藏机构的杰出藏品,它们代表着20世纪后半叶艺术的运动与趋势,其中就包括:艺术期刊《骰子的第七面》(Dau al Set),艺术团体“埃尔·帕索”(the El Paso group),温哥华学派(the Vancouver School)与杜塞尔多夫学派(the Dusseldorf School)。
纽约古根海姆博物馆的策展人Álvaro Rodríguez Fominaya同样担任此次展览的策展人,在博物馆三楼整层那2000平米的宏大空间中,《倒镜》为观众带来来自52位艺术家的93件作品,创作形式、媒材多样,包括摄影、绘画、文献、雕塑与录像,代表艺术家包括安东尼·塔皮耶斯(Antoni Tàpies)、Sigmar Polke、Julian Schnabel、Jeff Wall、Martha Rosler、Michelangelo Pistolletto、Thomas Ruff、Gillian Wearing、布鲁斯·纽曼(Bruce Nauman)、安德烈亚斯·古尔斯基(Andreas Gursky)、Martín Chirino、Antonio Saura等。

策展思路主要围绕安全基金会(Fundación La Caixa)与巴塞罗那当代艺术馆(MACBA)藏品之间的同异及对各类艺术运动的侧重,如西班牙的非具象艺术流派(Art Informel)运动之始、纪实摄影作为一种当代摄影流派的建立等。展览分成六个版块:骰子的第七面与埃尔·帕索(Dau Al Set and El Paso)、景观在摄影中的功能与重演、自我与他者在摄影中的功能与重演、表演的局限、倒镜、轻重及其他可能。展览可谓为古根海姆毕尔巴鄂馆那标志性的弗兰克·盖瑞(Frank Gehry)建筑度身定制。
展览标题取自著名意大利艺术家Michelangelo Pistoletto的参展作品《镜之筑》(Mirror Architecture)。镜之像是对累积、转换与干扰过程的隐喻,这一过程亦是任何一家艺术收藏会诞生与发展的基础。展览缘于2010年由安全基金会与巴塞罗那当代艺术馆联合签署的一项合作协议,也是这两家对欧洲当代艺术收藏界举足轻重的一线机构有史以来首次在其自身场馆之外携手展出其藏品。

骰子的第七面与埃尔·帕索(Dau Al Set/El Paso 

展览的序幕在304展厅拉开帷幕,集中展示了对西班牙内战后西班牙艺术语言有着极大推动与革新作用的两大艺术组织:《骰子的第七面》(Dau al Set)及“埃尔·帕索”(El Paso)。同场展出的还包括其他同样涌现于19世纪40年代-50年代的国际艺术团体。

1948年,巴塞罗那十月沙龙(Salón de Octubre)同期,艺术期刊《骰子的第七面》(Dau Al Set)由安东尼·塔皮耶斯(Antoni Tàpies)、莫德斯特·奎哈特(Modest Cuixart)、约安·庞斯(Joan Ponç)、裘安·约瑟·塔拉茲(Juan José Tharrats)合作创办,其他协办者包括诗人约安·布罗沙(Joan Brossa )、裘安·爱德华多·戚尔勒特( Juan Eduardo Cirlot)、艺术史学家暨艺术批评家亚诺·普伊格(Arnau Puig)等人。从创刊起至1953年总共发表58期。除个别介绍创办成员的作品目录外,还以专题的形式报道保罗·克利(Paul Klee)、高第(Antonio Gaudi)、胡安·米罗(Joan Miró)、毕卡比亚(Francis Picabia)、孙伯格(Arnold Schönberg)、马克思·恩斯特(Max Ernst)等人作品。她的发起受到了达达与超现实主义的影响,并激励了开泰罗尼亚的当代艺术发展。

艺术家团体埃尔·帕索(the El Paso group)成立于1957年的马德里,起草了一系列宣扬解放艺术与艺术家的宣言。成员包括安东尼奥·绍拉(Antonio Saura),曼努埃尔·米利亚雷斯(Manual Millares),路易斯·费托(Luis Feito)、拉斐尔·卡诺加(Rafael Canogar),马丁·里诺(Martín Chirino),安东尼奥·苏亚雷斯奇(Antonio Suarez),安东尼奥·F·阿尔瓦(Antonio Chirino),曼努埃尔·里韦拉(Manuel Rivera)和曼努埃尔·孔德(Manuel Conde)。“埃尔·帕索”提倡简朴的色彩与非具象艺术(Art Informel)的审美假设。
景观在摄影中的功能与重演
这一版块展出了一系列风景摄影作品,它们来自温哥华学派(Vancouver School)、杜塞尔多夫学派(Dusseldorf School)及其他诸如Manolo Laguillo、Jean-Marc Bustamante、Xabier Ribas等在内的摄影师,后者并未参与前两个学派运动,但其哲学有相通之处。

杜塞尔多夫学派(Dusseldorf School)包括了杜塞尔多夫美术学院19世纪70年代贝歇夫妇(Bernd and Hilla Becher)的门下子弟,如:安德烈亚斯·古尔斯基(Andreas Gursky),托马斯·鲁夫(Thomas Ruff)、Alex Hütte和坎迪德·霍夫(Candida Hofer)。这些艺术家继承了贝歇的纪实风格,同时自然也在摄影中加入了各自的新元素,如他们与建筑的关系、对城市风景的解构式分析。摄影技术日新月异的发展也让他们都够创作超大尺幅的作品,安德烈亚斯·古尔斯基(Andreas Gursky)的《香港上海银行》(HongKong Shanghai Bank,1994)就是建筑解构摄影的典型代表;再如托马斯•鲁夫(Thomas Ruff)创作于1978年的纽约城市风景照,它们皆是同辈德国纪实摄影(German Objective Photography)运动的先驱。

温哥华学派(Vancouver School)由一组在温哥华生活、工作的艺术家发起于19世纪80年代-90年代。通过运用电影制作系统,Jeff Wall、Rodney Graham与Stan Douglas在其多媒材的众多创作的同时逐渐培养起了一种电影审美。代表作之一即Jeff Wall的《狩猎一景》(A Hunting Scene,1994)。在这幅令人惴惴不安的名作中,艺术家的先锋曝光手法及精心排布的场景均烘托出当代社会的本质:“以同样的方式生活了很久的人,如何在周围环境发生剧变之后,依然坚持她们的生活习惯?这是我曾经感兴趣的问题。就如这张照片里的两个女人,旧习依然蔓延在新的生活风景中。为什么会这样呢?又为什么不呢?”(摘自《Jeff Wall散文及访谈录》

自我与他者在摄影中的功能与重演
这一版块着重回顾当代肖像与自画像摄影,尤其关注身份及性别的探讨。展出了自20世纪末至今的代表性人像摄影,诸如辛迪·舍曼(Cindy Sherman)、吉莉安·韦英(Gillian Wearing)、Geneviève Cadieux、Craigie Horsfield与Vanessa Beecroft分别以别具一格的切入点展开肖像摄影的创作:Vanessa Beecroft的《黑色麦当娜与双胞胎》(Black Madonna with Twins,2006)将镜头对准了并非独一无二的那些人,并将之转化为某种匿名的主题。Gillian Wearing的摄影系列《Album》(2003–06)从她的家庭着手,由此重塑了艺术家本人的自画肖像照。另一头,Geneviève Cadieux在创作系列《用你的眼睛听我说》(Hear Me with Your Eyes,1989)时则持续数年将其姐姐框在取景框中,试图捕捉那浓味的一瞬。版块还展出了一张来自Rineke Dijkstra《公园肖像》(Park Portraits)系列的作品,画面中是一名站在阿姆斯特丹一处公园里的少年。

表演的局限
这一版块回顾了19世纪60年代-70年代的表演艺术(Performance Art),以及由表演艺术衍生出的多样可能性与变体。巴塞罗那当代艺术馆基金会(MACBA Foundation)的此类收藏颇丰,这也是基金会的收藏重点之一。作品来自知名表演艺术家Vito Acconci、Martha Rosler、布鲁斯·纽曼(Bruce Nauman)、Joan Jonas、Francesc Torres、John Baldessari、Àngels Ribé、Fina Miralles等。这些艺术家利用录像、摄影与随机道具作为媒介来记录各类隶属概念艺术范畴的创作,包括身体艺术、女性主义艺术、探讨行为与自然之间关系的作品等。Martha Rosler的女性主义录像作品《厨房的符号学》(Semiotics of the Kitchen,1975)中扑面而来的讽刺意味同艺术团体Grup de Treball(工作组)的摄影拼贴《路线》(Itineraries,1973)中昭然若揭的政治寓意形成鲜明对比。布鲁斯·纽曼(Bruce Nauman)的五张纸上作品中,艺术家运用双手来引发一系列肢体动作。

倒镜
Michelangelo Pistoletto的《镜之筑》(Mirror Architecture)几乎占据了整个303展厅,包括一系列创作于1988年-1990年间纪念碑式的巨型作品,创作涉及各类图像、非图像类材料和作品规格的设定。同场展出的Enzo Cucchi三联幅作品《轮胎之一、二、三》(Gomme I, III II,1987)实验了一些当时的新材料,包括胶乳、金属等,如何熟练掌控材料将之雕塑成形直至打磨成艺术家心中的理想视觉形象。Julian Schnabel选择婴儿床的布料创作了四件以摘自《旧约》(Old Testament)词句命名的巨幅作品。此外,Sigmar Polke的《三联幅》(Triptych,1989)在透明材料表面用漆与颜料创作。

轻重及其他可能

展出一系列来自Ernesto Neto、Gego、Tony Cragg、Damián Ortega及Lothar Baumgartner的雕塑装置作品;Francesc Torres的一张摄影作品;Ettore Spalletti的一幅绘画。展厅中央是委内瑞拉艺术家Gego采用向量、网格和标线创作的雕塑代表作Square Reticulárea (1971)。Ernesto Neto用莱卡棉创作的诗意装置Globulocell (2001)与Gego的理性之作迥然相异。

总揽全展,参展作品的议题涵盖了政治、社会与经济问题,例如Damián Ortega的作品《走错一步》(One Wrong Move,1999–2003)即将矛头指向当下基于石油的全球经济链。

BILBAO.- From January 31 to September 2, 2012, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao will be hosting The Inverted Mirror: Art from the Collections of ”la Caixa” Foundation and MACBA, a superb selection of works belonging to two outstanding contemporary art collections that represent the most significant tendencies and movements spanning the second half of the twentieth century to the present, such as Dau al Set, the El Paso group, the Vancouver School and the Dusseldorf School. 

Throughout the Museum’s third floor, The Inverted Mirror offers visitors a tour of 93 works by 52 artists who worked with various media, especially photography, video and large-format sculpture. 

The exhibition is structured around the points of agreement and divergence between the Fundación "la Caixa" and MACBA collections and highlights the art movements that play an outstanding role in both collections, such as the beginning of Art Informel in Spain and the establishment of objectivity as a current in contemporary photography. 

The exhibition title derives from Michelangelo Pistoletto’s work Mirror Architecture, which is featured in the show. The image of a mirror is a metaphor for the processes of accumulation, transfer and interference that are a fundamental part of the birth and development of all art collections. In connection with its title, the show highlights two contemporary art collections located in Barcelona, which are extremely relevant in Europe and are being presented for the first time together outside of their respective venues, in keeping with a collaboration agreement signed in 2010. 

Curated by Álvaro Rodríguez Fominaya, Curator of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, the exhibition features photographs, paintings, publications, sculptures, installations and videos by 52 celebrated artists such as Antoni Tàpies, Sigmar Polke, Julian Schnabel, Jeff Wall, Martha Rosler, Michelangelo Pistolletto, Thomas Ruff, Gillian Wearing, Bruce Nauman, Andreas Gursky, Martín Chirino and Antonio Saura, among others. 

Scope of the exhibition 
The nearly one hundred works from the ”la Caixa” and MACBA collections that make up this exhibition are spread across 2,000 square meters on the Museum’s third floor, a thematic tour in six major sections: Dau Al Set and El Paso, Function and Reenactment in Photography: Landschaft, Function and Reenactment in Photography: the Self and the Other, The Limits of Performance, The Inverted Mirror, and Levity, Gravity and Other Impossibilities. 

Designed specifically for the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, The Inverted Mirror exhibition acquires a new dimension in conjunction with the unique, luminous spaces in Frank Gehry’s building. 

Dau Al Set/El Paso 
The exhibition starts in Gallery 304 with two movements that helped renovate the language of art in Spain after the Spanish Civil War: Dau al Set and El Paso. These and other groups that arose in the 1940s and 1950s joined in the debate that was raging on the international art scene. 

Dau al Set (1948–1954) was formed in Barcelona around the magazine of the same name. The group originally consisted of several Catalan writers and artists who promoted the project such as Joan Brossa, Modest Cuixart, Joan Ponç, Antoni Tàpies and Joan-Josep Tharrats. Later, a series of artists and art critics, among them Antonio Saura, Juan Eduardo Cirlot, Jorge Oteiza and Alexandre Cirici Pellicer, collaborated with the movement and stimulated the course of contemporary art in Catalonia. Dau al Set was inspired by the Dada and Surrealist movements and especially by Max Ernst, Joan Miró and Paul Klee. 

In turn, El Paso was founded in Madrid in 1957 with the adoption of a manifesto that championed freedom for art and artists, among other issues. The most prominent members of this movement, which broke up in 1960, were well-known figures on the international scene such as Antonio Saura, Manuel Millares, Martín Chirino, Rafael Canogar and Manuel Rivera. In the founding manifesto, these artists advocated an austere color palette together with the partial adoption of the aesthetic postulates of Art Informel. 

Function and Reenactment in Photography: Landschaft 
The exhibition continues in the classical galleries with a series of photographs dedicated to the landscape genre by the Vancouver School, Dusseldorf School and other photographers such as Manolo Laguillo, Jean-Marc Bustamante and Xabier Ribas who were not part of these movements, but shared their philosophy. 

The Dusseldorf School encompasses Bernd and Hilla Becher’s students at the Dusseldorf Art Academy in the 1970s, including Andreas Gursky, Thomas Struth, Alex Hütte and Candida Höfer. These artists adopted the Becher’s documentary style, although they added several new features to their photography techniques, such as the treatment of human groups, their relationship to architecture and the detached analysis of the urban landscape. Access to new technologies in photo printing allowed them to create large formats. Hong Kong Shanghai Bank (1994) by Andreas Gursky is an exceptional example of corporate architecture; the urban landscapes Thomas Struth created in New York in 1978 are some of the earliest manifestations of the German Objective Photography movement of his generation. 

The Vancouver School was constituted by a series of artists who worked in that city during the 1980s and 1990s. By applying cinematic production systems, Jeff Wall, Rodney Graham and Stan Douglas cultivated a film aesthetic in many of their works on various media. One example is A Hunting Scene (1994), an unsettling work by Jeff Wall, a pioneer in the use of lights boxes to exhibit his carefully staged tableaux whose themes represent the essence of contemporary society. The artist once comment on this photograph as follow:
                    I was interested in how people who may have been living in some way for a long time, like these two men, would persist in their habits even during the drastic change in the environment that is happening. Old behaviours flow across a new landscape. Why? Why not?
Jeff Wall: Selected Essays and Interviews

Function and Reenactment in Photography: The Self and the Other
In this section, the artists approach portraiture and self-portraiture on the basis of a contemporary perspective and pay special attention to issues such as identity and gender. These works illustrate the way in which the human figure has been portrayed in photography from the late twentieth century until the present. Cindy Sherman, Gillian Wearing, Geneviève Cadieux, Craigie Horsfield and Vanessa Beecroft are a few of the artists that have addressed this genre from different points of view: Vanessa Beecroft’s Black Madonna with Twins (Right), 2006, is a photograph of people who, in being deprived of their uniqueness, are turned into anonymous subjects. In Gillian Wearing’s photography from her Album series (2003–06), the artist starts out with images of her family to recreate her own self-portrait. On the other hand, in Hear Me with Your Eyes (1989), Geneviève Cadieux photographed her sister over the course of several years in order to capture the emotional intensity of the moment. The section also includes a portrait by Rineke Dijkstra from her Park Portraits series that shows a teenager in a park in Amsterdam who poses for the photographer.

The Limits of Performance
This section examines the origins of Performance Art in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as the many different possibilities and variants of this medium. The MACBA Foundation collection has an outstanding number of works from this artistic genre, which is one of the collection’s focal points. Works by acclaimed artists in this discipline such as Vito Acconci, Martha Rosler, Bruce Nauman, Joan Jonas, Francesc Torres, John Baldessari, Àngels Ribé and Fina Miralles, among others, have been selected for this exhibition.

These artists used video, photography and occasionally props to document a medium that encompasses a range of conceptual orientations, including Body Art, feminism in art and the relationship between action and nature. The sarcasm of Martha Rosler’s feminist video Semiotics of the Kitchen (1975) contrasts with the explicitly political content of the Grup de Treball collective in its photography collage Itineraries (1973). Bruce Nauman is fully represented in this exhibition by five works on paper in which the artist used his hands to force a series of gestures.

The Inverted Mirror
Michelangelo Pistoletto’s Mirror Architecture inspired the exhibition’s title and dominates gallery 303, which contains a number of pieces of monumental scale created between 1988 and 1990. These works have in common experimentation through both pictorial and nonpictorial materials, as well as the scale that was used.

In the triptych Gomme I, III II (1987), Enzo Cucchi investigated new materials such as latex and metal and thus, incorporated problems that had been exclusive to sculpture until then into pictorial language. In the same way, Julian Schnabel used fabric from army cots to create the four monumental works entitled with words and phrases from the Old Testament that have been selected for this exhibition.

Lastly, Sigmar Polke’s Triptych (1989), created on the basis of lacquer and paint on transparent fabric, is extraordinarily complemented by Michelangelo Pistoletto’s polyptych Mirror Architecture.

Levity, Gravity and Other Impossibilities
The notion of gravity and levity is the common denominator of the works in this section, which were created on an array of different formats: a series of sculptures and installations by Ernesto Neto, Gego, Tony Cragg, Damián Ortega and Lothar Baumgartner; a photograph by Francesc Torres; and a painting by Ettore Spalletti. A prominent place in this gallery is occupied by Square Reticulárea (1971), a key sculpture in the career of Venezuelan artist Gego, in which she used threedimensional vectors, mesh and planes. Gego’s mathematical roots contrast with the organic nature of Ernesto Neto’s installation Globulocell (2001), made of Lycra tulle.

In addition to the importance of the formal aspects of many of these creations, this section covers political, social and economic issues, exemplified, for example, in Damián Ortega’s piece One Wrong Move (1999–2003), in which the artist addresses the oil-based economy of our times.

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