Art From the North

遇见振华,最深刻的印象,我记得是在香格纳画廊的胡介鸣个展开幕式,他站在画廊外面与胡老师和Marie聊天。他邀请我去隔天在新单位的一次圆桌讨论,瑞士艺术家Anne-Julie Raccoursier来上海参与“行动与录像”系列项目。我从当时圆桌的会议笔录,到与同系列艺术家Yves Netzhammer的采访,及至后来系列中其他艺术家的活动现场翻译与相关资料整理,逐渐了解每位艺术家的创作,并延展至对振华、及其策展工作的了解,还有他bjartlab上登载的许多感性文字与工作笔记,那段时光对我而言是十分珍贵的。直至如今,我对新媒体艺术的了解也大多源自这段经历。也正是因为参与到该系列,我才真正接触到上海外滩美术馆,及至加入到这个机构工作。

今年,振华作为K11开幕展的策展人,策划了《真实、美、自由与金钱》,筹备期间,我和他见过一次面。他同时间在诸多机构担任工作,但都是相对自由而松散的工作关系,相应的“不稳定性”令他的言辞带有更多的绝对。反而我个人在机构的工作,只能遥望这种自由,也只能有限地参与到这个项目中。除却为部分的艺术家简历及访谈提供翻译,主要的译作是如下的芬兰展映项目及其相关论著。该展映项目在K11的展览现场占据了一个相对独立的空间,大屏幕投影滚动播放十余部芬兰实验电影,不论是否有观众,十余排白色折叠凳都忠实地观看着这些影像。

谢谢振华。

*以下文字的最终修订版登载于《真实、美、自由与金钱》(社群媒体兴起后的艺术)同名展览书。

truth beauty freedom and money

truth beauty freedom and money

In conjunction with the exhibition T.B.F.M K11 presents a screening of key artists of Finnish experimental film and video art from the mid-1990s to the present. There were some Finnish experiments in video already in the 1960s and 70s, and the history of experimental cinema goes back to 30s, as one of the artists in the screening programme Mika Taanila has stated in the book Electric Forest – The historyof video art and experimental cinema in Finland 1933-1998.  By the mid-1980s video gradually started to replace film as the favourite medium of experimental artists, being cheaper to use — and of course, being recyclable. At the turn of the 1990s Finnish video art had already reached its zenith. Most artists in this programme work with film, video, photography as well as other media.THE FINNISH VIDEO PROGRAM

The programme begins by Seppo Renvall’s piece Planet – Earth – Encyclopedia (1995), which makes one aware of violence of classifications. Renvall’s films are characterized by repetition, and rhythm as well as cyclic images and sounds. Renvall was a grounding member of Helsinki Filmakers co/opt established in 1989, which had a big impact on development of video art in Finland. The programme continues with Roi Vaara’s film Artists Dilemma (1997) which is filmed with a 16 mm camera on one take. One of the Finland’s best known performance artists Roi Vaara is trying to decide which road to take / art to the left or life to the right. He performs for a single eye simply recording the event, he does not manipulate the image with camera angles or editing.  The programme continues with works by Liisa Lounila (Flirt, 2001) and Salla Tykkä (Power, 1999) with focus on power relations between people and investigations of human identity.  Anu Pennanen’s  work has concentrated on urban public space and its relation to cinema and media. A Monument for the Invisible (2003) is a part of the Monument Project, in which Pennanen investigates Helsinki’s urban environment from a blind person’s perspective. Batbox/Beatbox (2007) is a pair of experimental short films by Jani Ruscica which physically reveal the limitations of human vision. Jani Ruscica is an artist working with film, video, photography and other media. Adel Abidin’s works usually employ few words, but his pictures are all the more powerful and eloquent for it. In the Bread of Life (2008) he approached four musicians in Cairo with an ironic idea to play with bread – the source of life. In his practice, Mika Taanila works fluently in the fields of documentary film, music video and the visual arts. Experimental short film Optical Sound (2005) seen in this programme continues the series of films by Mika Taanila which deal with technology, humanity, and futuristic ideas.  Sasha Huber also uses various media including video, photography, drawing, intervention and stapling.  In Rentyhorn (2008) she took the first step towards renaming the mountain, which is named Adasszhorn after Louis Agassiz – an influential racist and pioneering thinker of apartheid. The artist collaborateded with he Transatlantic Committee “De-mounting Louis Agassiz” which wants to rename the mountain “Rentyhorn”. The programme ends by the work by  film-maker and media-artist Jan Ijäs, who is a artist of lens-based art, both still and moving. The films of Ijäs tend to break the traditional boundaries of fictive and documentary films.

The programme is curated by Marita Muukkonen as a part of HIAP’s Urban Agents Programme.

Www.hiap.fi

Marita Muukkonen is a curator based in Helsinki and Berlin. Co-founder of Perpetuum Mobile; previously Curator at HIAP – The Helsinki International Artists-in-Residence Programme; Curator at FRAME – The Finnish Fund for Art Exchange; Editor of FRAMEWORK – The Finnish Art Review; 2001-2005 at NIFCA The Nordic Institute for Contemporary Art.

http://www.re-aligned.net/en/splash/

芬兰录像艺术

与《真实、美、自由和金钱》K11开幕展联合推出的芬兰录像展映将呈现自19世纪90年代中期至今的分类实验电影与录像艺术的代表作。展映艺术家之一弥卡.塔尼拉(Mika Taanila)在其《电子森林——1933-1998芬兰录像艺术与实验电影历史》一书中表明,芬兰录像实验始于19世纪六七十年代,而早在三十年代既已开始对实验电影的探索。自19世纪80年代中期,录像逐渐取代电影成为实验艺术家最青睐的媒介,成本低廉还可循环利用。步入90年代,芬兰录像艺术的发展达到鼎盛。此次展映的参展艺术家多用电影、录像、摄影等媒介进行创作。

此次展映的开篇之作来自Seppo Renvall的《地球百科全书》(1995),它提示人们警惕分类学的暴力。Renvall的影片特色在于图像与声音的重复、韵律与循环。Renvall于1989年被选为赫尔辛基电影人联盟的首届成员,他对芬兰录像艺术的发展影响颇大。Roi Vaara的影片《艺术家的两难困境》(Artist’s Dilemma,1997) 是一部16mm电影摄录机一镜到底拍摄的表演实录影片。Roi Vaara是芬兰最知名的表演艺术家之一,画面表现了艺术家正试着决定走哪一条路:艺术向左,生活向右。他单向录像机表演,而录像机单纯地记录下眼前所发生的一切,艺术家并不转换相机的拍摄镜头或剪辑方式。Liisa Lounila的《调情》(Flirt,2001)与Salla Tykkä的《权利》(Power,1999)则关注人与人之间的权力关系及对人类身份的探究。Anu Pennanen的创作聚焦于城市公共空间同电影和媒体之间的关系,其作品《为不可见而设的纪念碑》(A Monument for the Invisible,2003是“纪念碑项目”(Monument Project)的一部分,Pennanen在项目中通过一个盲人的视角探索了赫尔辛基的城市环境。《蝙蝠盒/口技盒》(Batbox/Beatbox,2007)是Jani Ruscica的一组实验短片,揭露出人类视界的局限。Ruscica是一名跨越电影、录像、摄影及其他媒介创作的艺术家。Adel Abidin的作品常寡言少语,但画面却铿锵有力,正如其作品《生命的面包》(Bread of Life,2008),艺术家在开罗召集了四位打击乐手,不无嘲讽地请乐手以面包——这生命之源作为乐器进行演奏。弥卡.塔尼拉的创作在纪实录像、前卫电影与视觉艺术之间游刃有余,其实验短片《可视的声音》(2005)作为艺术家的系列短片之一,探讨了科技、人性与未来观念。Sasha Huber的创作媒介同样十分广泛,从录像、摄影、绘画、介入到装订艺术(艺术家特有的工作方法)。在《蓝迪峰》(Rentyhorn,2008)中,她率先一步为Agassizhorn山峰改名:山峰原名本为纪念路易斯.阿加西(Louis Agassiz)——一位臭名昭著的种族主义者与种族隔离制度的倡导者,艺术家同跨大西洋委员会“拆路易斯.阿加西的台”分会携手,将山峰改名为“蓝迪峰”。展映系列的最后是来自电影制作人及媒体艺术家Jan Ijäs的作品,他是一名基于镜头进行创作的艺术家,作品动静皆宜,此次他的参展影片试图打破叙事片与纪实片的传统界限。

该项目由Marita Muukkonen策划,是赫尔辛基国际艺术家驻地项目(HIAP)的城市事务计划(Urban Agents Programme)的一部分。

Www.hiap.fi

Marita Muukkonen是一位常驻赫尔辛基和柏林的策展人。她是Perpetuum Mobile的联合策展人,曾任赫尔辛基国际艺术家驻地项目(HIAP)策展人,芬兰艺术交流基金会FRAME策展人,芬兰艺术展评杂志FRAMEWORK编辑,2001-2005年间任职于北欧当代艺术学院(NIFCA)。

OUTSIDERS OF THE SEVENTH ART

第七艺术的局外人

Finnish Experimental Cinema 1933–1985

芬兰实验电影(1933-1985)

In this essay, I use the rather broad term ‘experimental cinema’ to describe all independent and artistically ambitious efforts in the field of moving images that have consciously sought to question conventional ways of interpreting and making films. Experimental film-making is often more or less an underground undertaking, sometimes even anti-social, and research in this field in Finland has consequently remained almost entirely in the blind spot of the rear-view mirror of history.

我在本文中使用了“实验电影”这一非常宽泛的术语来描述所有勇于进行艺术创新和独立创作的影像实践,它们不断挑战对电影解读与创作的传统方式。实验电影的制作通常是某种地下活动,有时甚至是反社会的;而在芬兰历史的后视镜中,对此类电影的研究几乎一片空白。

The principal material for my essay has, naturally enough, been the films themselves. Many of them have disappeared over the years. Fortunately, however, the Finnish Film Archive has managed to preserve many of the works in satisfactory condition for screening. The present, fragmentary essay into the history of experimental cinema in Finland covers only works made on film (8 / 9.5 / 16 / 35 mm) up to 1985.

本文的主要素材自然就是这些影片本身。其中很多已年久失存。不过幸好芬兰电影档案馆保存了很多完好无损、仍可放映的影片。本文只能零散地辑录了截止1985年创作的8 / 9.5 / 16 / 35 毫米制式影片,由此一窥芬兰的实验电影史。

In gathering material for the essay, I have met with those principal auteurs who are still alive. The facts and quotations in the text are from these meetings or from telephone conversations, unless otherwise indicated in the endnotes. I would like to thank especially Ilkka Kippola from the Finnish Film Archive for arranging the screenings and for tireless discussions. Thanks are due also to Anton Nikkilä and Eero Tammi for their perceptive comments on both the content and style of the text.

在为撰写本文收集素材的过程中,我有幸得见一些依然健在的重要导演。文中的事实陈述和引用来自与他们进行的当面交流或电话交谈,除非在尾注中特别标明。我特别感谢芬兰电影档案馆的Ilkka Kippola先生,他不仅安排了展映,而且不厌其烦地参加讨论。也要感谢Anton Nikkilä和Eero Tammi先生,为本文的内容与风格给予了颇具洞察力的建议。

PROLOGUE

序言

“Having got hold of a number of clothes brushes I had to saw a few of them in two, I don’t know why.” – Eino Ruutsalo [1]

我有好多个衣刷,但我总得把其中几个锯开,我也不知道为什么。Eino Ruutsalo

One of the first clues to an experimental attitude slips into Finnish cinema in the vicinity of Esplanade Park in Helsinki. The surrealist short May Day Revel[1] (Vappuhumua/Första maj glädje, 1933) is about a man waking up to May Day with a serious hangover.

起初,一股实验风格的暗流悄然潜入芬兰首都赫尔辛基滨海公园附近的芬兰影院。超现实主义短片《五一狂欢》(Vappuhumua/Första maj glädje, 1933)讲述了一个男人酩酊大醉后于5月1日醒来的故事。

As the protagonist steps out into the street after partying all night, in his sensitised state he sees the city awakening around him as a surreal stage about to come down over his head. Horse carriages move backwards, the streets appear upside down or skewed, the female figure of the Havis Amanda statue is distorted and turns upside down when the hero wipes his sweating brow. In an explosion of double and triple exposures Helsinki looks like a modern metropolis. The film foregrounds the movements of the city, its shapes and lights – in a positively anguished mood. May Day Revel was commissioned by Suomi-Filmi and represented a rare genre for its time, an independent short film. The film was ‘composed’, that is, shot, directed and edited by Armas (Ama) Jokinen. Jokinen was a so-called itinerant cameraman, who shot many short films for different companies and with different directors. Ignoring the film’s gauche and didactic hangover context, in its wildest optical tricks May Day Revel exudes a genuine joy of discovery and gleeful transgression of the limits of convention. What was new about the narrative was the powerful way in which it identified with the inner emotional state of the hero at the expense of the story itself. The modern and unfettered feel of the film is also emphasised by the unrestrained way it steals music as well as many images (metropolitan neon lights shot in different cities) from other films of the production company.

男主角在通宵狂欢之后,跨出门口、踏入街道时,忽然变得敏感起来,看到周围的城市苏醒过来,仿若从天而降的超现实舞台剧。马车倒逆而行、向后驶去,街道歪歪斜斜、上下颠倒,著名女子铜像Havis Amanda扭曲变形,脚朝上、头朝下。此时男主角擦了擦额头的汗水。经过二次和三次曝光后,赫尔辛基看起来像个现代大都市。电影以城市的变化为前景,其形状与光线烘托出一种绝然的痛苦情愫。《五一狂欢》由芬兰影业公司(Suomi-Filmi)制作发行,代表了当时的少数派,同时也是一部独立制作的短片。影片由Armas (Ama) Jokinen拍摄、导演并剪辑。Jokinen号称是巡回摄影师,他为许多公司拍摄了大量的电影短片,也与很多导演有过合作经历。若将电影表现出的那种说教般的笨拙情景搁置一旁,那么《五一狂欢》狂放的视觉陷阱的确渗透着一种发现的天真快乐,同时也表现出对传统限制的戏谑反叛。其叙事方式的新颖之处在于注重对人物内心情感的强调而非故事本身。此外,通过借用音乐及许多常见于同一影业公司出品的其它电影图景(不同城市的霓虹灯夜景),影片奔放地传递出现代的、无拘无束之感。

The next year saw the launch of the first Finnish film club, Projektio (Projection). The architect Alvar Aalto and the critic Nils Gustav Hahl had become acquainted with film clubs in their travels to London and Paris. Aalto knew the famous Hungarian theorist and avant-garde film-maker László Moholy-Nagy, and had himself been filming since 1929.[2] Aalto and Hahl were inspired to spread the gospel of artistically ambitious cinema to Finland. Together with the critic Hans Kutter they founded the Projektio film club. For the first test screening in November 1934 to attract members to the club, they contacted Gösta Werner who ran a similar club in Sweden and asked him for a copy of René Clair’s wild dadaist outburst, Entr’acte (1924). Scripted by Francis Picabia, the film eschewed all conventional logic and starred such names as Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp and Erik Satie. As an interesting historical aside it might be mentioned that Entr’acte is considered one of the first cross-disciplinary films and was produced entirely outside the film industry.[3] It was not made to be shown in cinemas, but was commissioned to be screened during the intermission of Relâche (or Performance Suspended), a performance by The Swedish Ballet.[4]

次年,芬兰的第一家电影俱乐部Projektio成立。建筑师Alvar Aalto和评论家Nils Gustav Hahl去伦敦和巴黎旅行时经常光顾当地的电影俱乐部。Aalto结识了著名的匈牙利理论家及前卫电影制作人László Moholy-Nagy,他本人也于1929年起开始拍电影。Aalto和Hahl有志于将这种宏大艺术风格的电影传播到芬兰。于是,他们同Hans Kutter一起创立了Projektio电影俱乐部。1934年11月的首次试映,他们联系到在瑞典经营类似俱乐部的Gösta Werner,并向他借映了René Clair的一部狂野的达达主义影片《插曲》(Entr’acte,1924),从而开始了会员的招募。该片剧本由Francis Picabia创作,可谓脱离了所有传统逻辑,Man Ray、Marcel Duchamp和Erik Satie担纲主演。值得一提的是,《插曲》被认为是第一部跨学科电影,它是完全在电影工业之外制作完成的;它并非为了在影院上映,而是受邀制作、并在瑞典芭蕾舞团的剧目《Relâche》(又名“悬置的表演”)的幕间休息时放映。

When Projektio was finally operational in March 1935, its programme from the outset included a series of the latest French, German and Soviet avant-garde films. The animated discussions that followed the performances were usually presided over by Alvar Aalto. The club was a success and its membership soon grew to nearly three hundred.[5] One of the active members of Projektio from the start was Nyrki Tapiovaara. He had a fanatic interest in the language and laws of cinema. In December 1937, Tapiovaara was in Paris where he saw new avant-garde films – including shorts by Fernand Leger, Viking Eggeling, Man Ray, Hans Richter and Joris Ivens – and wrote enthusiastic reports of his impressions for readers of the Finnish film magazine Elokuva-aitta: “The key to the secret is undoubtedly that we are witnessing the sudden appearance of modern man in the game, an emphatically modern man with consciously modern senses. Their art is not blooming, nor is it always very mature. It is battle art, painfully wrought pioneering art that is creating tools for those who will come later, to allow them to cultivate the cleared land easier to make flourishing art. But it is characterised by a certainty of direction. It is sure of its mission, even though it admits to being an experimenter.”[6]

Projektio电影俱乐部于1935年3月展开实际运营,其影片项目从一开始就汇集了一系列最新的法国、德国和苏联前卫电影。一般由Alvar Aalto主持演后谈。Projektio电影俱乐部大获成功,其会员很快增长至将近三百人。Nyrki Tapiovaara就是其中一位元老级的活跃会员,他对电影的语言与规则极感兴趣。1937年12月,身在巴黎的Tapiovaara分别观看了由Fernand Leger、Viking Eggeling、Man Ray、Hans Richter和Joris Ivens导演的新式前卫电影,并为芬兰电影杂志《电影棚》(Elokuva-aitta)写了不少激情洋溢的报道:“秘诀无疑是我们见证了现代人的突然出现,主动拥有现代意识的绝对的现代人;他们的艺术尚未繁荣,时常青涩。这是一场艺术的战役——在痛苦中奋进的先锋艺术,他们为后来者创造工具,开拓净土,以耕耘艺术、开花结果。然而,其鲜明风格也恰在于方向的确立,使命的坚决,尽管他们也承认自己只是一个实验者。”

That same year Nyrki Tapiovaara got to direct his first film with the help of Heikki Aho and Björn Soldan. Characteristically, all his movies are conscious of the medium’s potential. We can still identify Tapiovaara’s trademark: powerful, expressionistic stylisation and visually inventive solutions. He was able to incorporate both the classic and the avant-garde idioms of his time into his own work. This is particularly true in the genre hybrid Mr Lahtinen Makes Himself Scarce (Herra Lahtinen lähtee lipettiin, 1939). After the war, all that survives of the original 76-minute film is a restored version lasting 40 minutes. Tapiovaara was obviously aiming for a mix of styles and genres unprecedented even internationally. “Even the surviving sequences attest to a wealth of material and genres: realistic narrative is interspersed with fairy tale, satire, musical and dream sequences, streams of consciousness or the parallel and simultaneous presence of several consciousnesses, concentrated and dilated time, surprising shifts in time and place, experimental use of sound and editing, surrealistically spiced ‘pure visual narrative’,” writes the film researcher Sakari Toiviainen.[7] Tapiovaara only had time to direct five feature films in a very short time before he was killed in the Winter War at the age of 28. Tapiovaara is to this day considered one of the first and perhaps the all-time greatest talents of Finnish cinema.

同年,Nyrki Tapiovaara在Heikki Aho 和Björn Soldan的帮助下开始拍摄自己的第一部电影。特别的是,他的所有影片都有意指向媒介的潜力。我们仍可将Tapiovaara的电影定义为:强有力的表现主义风格加上视觉创新手法。他将古典风格与其同时代的前卫主义相结合并成功运用到电影中。其中最具代表性的此类混合风格影片当属《Lahtinen先生独一无二》(Herra Lahtinen lähtee lipettiin, 1939)。战后,原长76分钟的电影只留存下了总长40分钟的修复版。Tapiovaara的目标显然是将不同的风格和体裁进行前所未有的混剪,这甚至在国际上也是先例。电影研究员Toiviainen写道:“甚至一些残存的片段都被证明是材料和题材上的财富:以现实主义叙事为主线,外加神话故事、讽喻、音乐与梦境,意识流或多重意识同时出现,集中与扩张的时间,时间与地点的突然转换,对音乐和剪辑的实验性使用,超现实主义的纯粹视觉叙事。”Tapiovaara在其短暂的一生中仅拍摄了五部故事片,随后在冬季战争(二战时期苏联与芬兰之间的战争)中殉难,年仅28岁。直至今天, Tapiovaara一直被认为是芬兰电影史上最早也可能是历来最伟大的天才之一。

Of course, early Finnish cinema had other powerful and visionary directors as well, such as Teuvo Tulio and Valentin Vaala. They were able to inject international influences effortlessly into Finnish cinema while preserving a personal and recognisable style. However, their contribution was restricted almost entirely to feature films, commercial productions intended for the general public.

当然,早期的芬兰电影也有其他具有影响力和创见的导演,例如Teuvo Tulio 和 Valentin Vaala。他们轻松地将国际影响带入到芬兰电影中,同时又保留了自己的独特风格。然而,他们的贡献几乎完全局限在故事片,只是一些为了迎合大众口味的商业片。

It was not until the 1950s that the first short films that embodied the personal visions of their makers were made in Finland. Film was for the first time seen as an intimate art form comparable to painting or the short story, a work of art signed by the author’s inimitable hand. Jörn Donner, known initially as a writer and later as a film critic, begins his first short film Morning in the City (Aamua kaupungissa, 1954) by signing it directly with his inimitable voice: “Jörn Donner presents the film Morning in the City, which was shot by Carl-Gustav Roos…” The film is a laconic, yet hyper-romantic occasional portrait of Helsinki, filled with ironic observations and formalist visual narrative. Donner’s modernist style is devoid of all superfluous emotional turbulence; the author of the film is a cool, external observer. By contrast, emotions steal the show in Maunu Kurkvaara’s short film The City (Kaupunki, 1957). The film is its author’s personal statement, showing Helsinki as an anguished, inhuman machine. In a breathless collage sequence, we are shown power plants, factories, landscaped offices, stone walls, enclosures, department stores and other emblems of modern lifestyle, termed ‘human prisons’ by Kurkvaara. Here too the director explains his vision in voice-over narrative: “Names, numbers, cards, forms, sorting systems, directories. Pigeonhole, number, card – that is you, human being.” From among cinephiles in southern Europe, auteurism had arrived in the North.

直到1950年代,芬兰才出现了首批表现个人视野的短片。电影首次被看做是一种个性艺术创作,与绘画、短片故事一样,是带有作者亲笔签名的充满个人色彩的艺术作品。Jörn Donner最初是位作家,然后成为了一名电影评论家,他在自己拍摄的首部短片《都市早晨》(Aamua kaupungissa, 1954)中直接加入了他自己特立独行的声音:“《都市早晨》由Jörn Donner出品,Carl-Gustav Roos导演……”这部影片简洁明快,对赫尔辛基的刻画偶尔表现出超浪漫主义的风格,同时充满了讽刺的洞见与形式主义的视觉叙述。Donner的现代主义风格缺乏繁复的情绪波动;影片的作者是一个冷酷的旁观者。与之相反,在Maunu Kurkvaara的电影《城市》(Kaupunki, 1957)中,情感胜过了情节。整部电影就是作者的个人陈述,向人们展现了赫尔辛基这座深陷痛苦的冷血机器。在一段令人窒息的拼贴画面中,我们看到林林总总的发电厂、工厂、环境优美的办公室、石头墙、围墙、百货店及其他现代生活风格的象征事物,这些都被Kurkvaara贴上了“人类监狱”的标签。导演也在影片中加入了自己的旁白:“名字、数字、名片、表格、分拣系统、目录。信件架、数字、名片——这就是你,人类。”这种颇受南欧影迷喜爱的导演风格也影响到北欧。

TOWARDS PURE CINEMA

走向纯粹电影

One of the greatest auteurs in the history of Finnish cinema, Risto Jarva, was much interested in experimental cinema at the start of his career. Along with Jaakko Ylinen, Raimo Oksa, Pertti Maisala and Martti Tiula, Jarva was one of the leading figures in Montaasi, a film club established in 1957 for students of the Polytechnic in Helsinki. There was not yet a film school in Finland, and for members of Montaasi screenings, systematic exploration of the medium, discussions and literary theorising were all part of a single undivided endeavour. Their interest was to deconstruct film into its basic components: form, rhythm and composition.

Risto Jarva是芬兰电影史上最伟大的导演之一,他在事业初期就对实验电影产生了浓厚的兴趣。1957年,Jarva与Jaakko Ylinen、Raimo Oksa、Pertti Maisala和Martti共同创建了Montaasi电影俱乐部,主要面向赫尔辛基职业技术学校的学生。当时芬兰还没有电影学校,对于Montaasi的会员来说,媒介的系统探索、文艺理论的论述及建立都是不可分割的整体。他们的兴趣就是将电影解构为基本的元素:形式、节奏和结构。

Jarva was particularly fascinated by the explosive opportunities of editing and motion, and he studied them by immersing himself in the history of cinema. “In an almost condensed way, his short films were a race to catch up with the greatest experimental films of the 1920s, for instance, an attempt to close in on things that had never been done here. And it all was informed by an aspiration to ‘pure cinema’,” Peter von Bagh has recalled.[8]

Jarva深为剪接和镜头的多样性所吸引,他沉浸于电影史并专注于研究。Peter von Bagh回忆道:“他的短片进步飞快,几与1920年代最伟大的实验电影并列,比如他对某些事物的前所未有的特写。一切均源自他对‘纯粹电影’的愿景。”

Jarva had been an active amateur photographer years before he made his first cinematic efforts. His 8-mm experiments Urban Rhythm / Face of the City (Kaupungin rytmiä / Kaupungin kasvot, 1957) and Episode (Episodi, 1959) are no longer extant. In Paris, Jarva together with a school friend, Juhani Jauhiainen, and Pirkko Katila made a short film Spinning (Pyörii, 1959). Representing Jarva’s formalistic side and a kind of systematic appropriation of the medium, the film is an experiment that is almost abstract in its execution. The motion of a woman spinning around continues as a panning shot into the geometric textures of trees in a wood.

在开始电影制作前,Jarva当了多年的业余摄影家。他的8毫米实验影片《城市节奏/城市的脸》(Kaupungin rytmiä / Kaupungin kasvot, 1957)和《章节》 (Episodi, 1959)已经丢失。在巴黎时,Jarva与两位校友Juhani Jauhiainen和Pirkko Katila共同拍摄了短片《纺织》(Pyörii, 1959)。Jarva的形式主义风格及对媒介的系统运用在这部短片中发挥得淋漓尽致,同时该短片也是一部极其抽象的实验电影。一名女子原地旋转着,摇杆镜头探向林中树表的几何质感。

9 Poems (9 runoa, 1959) represents the culmination of Jarva’s experimental period. The fluttering, expressionistic and high-contrast black-and-white film is a personal statement based on the use of symbols. The film consists of eight separate episodes or ‘poems’ that collectively constitute the missing ninth poem of the title. The episodes are Disgust, Self-portrait, Memory, Brain Mechanism, Circle, Down to Darkness, Conscience and Confessional. Each addresses a different aspect of human awareness through the use of powerful symbolism. The rapid crossfire of flickering images in Brain Mechanism represents perhaps the wildest expressionistic eruption of visual images in Finland up to that time. Flowing in dream-like eddies, the images transport viewers into the dark waters of the unconscious. “It is about Risto [Jarva] himself, a kind of visual first-person experience. In the film, Risto Jarva creates a self-portrait with all his youthful pent-up need for expression, with a directness that has no parallel in his later work,” writes Sakari Toiviainen, adding in a more restrained vein: “9 Poems is characterised by fast editing, constant (and often circular) motion, a lurching camera, visible and undigested influences from Pudovkin’s Mechanics of the Brain and Chess Fever and Buñuel’s Un Chien Andalou. The result is a stream-of-consciousness portrait of anguish, effective in its surrealistic details, although the overall impression in all its tangibility and experiential consciousness remains abstract and artificial.”[9]

《九首诗》(9 runoa, 1959)代表了Jarva实验电影创作的最高峰。晃动不定、高对比度的表现主义黑白电影是基于象征手法的个人陈述。电影包括了8个独立小故事,这些故事共同构成了片名中缺失的第九个故事。它们分别是《厌恶》(Disgust)、《自画像》(Self-portrait)、《回忆》(Memory)、《大脑机制》(Brain Mechanism)、《圆环》(Circle)、《沉沦黑暗》(Down to Darkness)、《意识》(Conscience) 和《忏悔》(Confessional)。通过运用有力的象征手法,每个故事都讲述了人类意识的一个侧面。《大脑机制》中时不时快速闪回的交火意象可能象征了当时视觉影像中最狂放的表现主义的崛起。很多意象的展现如梦幻般的涡流,将观众带入无意识的黑水中。Sakari Toiviainen写道:“这是一部关于Jarva自身的电影,以第一人称的视角展开。影片中Risto Jarva以自己年轻时那种极度压抑又渴望发泄的状态创造了一个自画像,这种坦率是其后的作品可望而不可及的。”作者以稍加内敛的语气补充道:“《九首诗》的特点就是采用快速剪接、连续镜头(通常是循环镜头)、晃动拍摄,很明显受到了Pudovkin的《脑力学》(Mechanics of the Brain)、《国际象棋热》(Chess Fever)及Buñuel的影片《一条安达鲁狗》(Un Chien Andalou)的影响。结果就是一副痛苦的意识流画像,以其超现实主义的细节动人,尽管整体意识可见可感,但仍然非常抽象,并充满与人造感。”

In the opening credits of his first feature-length film Day or Night (Yö vai päivä, 1962), Jarva mentions two 8-mm short films by Jaakko Ylinen, Landscape 1 and Landscape 2 (Maisema 1 and 2), praising their “accomplishment as new ways for appreciating the value of nature”. Jarva admired the way Ylinen used Kodachrome colours, claiming that they were more beautiful than anything else in the history of Finnish cinema, and called Landscape “pure cinema, consisting of nothing but rhythm and motion”.[10] Inspired by Ylinen, Jarva made one last formal experiment pertaining to the shooting of Day or Night. Accompanied by an effective modernist score by Kari Rydman, Kitka – A Poem in Living Water (Kitka, 1963) is a sensual nature film shot in Kuusamo on 35-mm stock in the spirit of Ralph Steiner’s H2O (USA, 1929). The opening credits of the film describe it as “a poem in living water”. Kitka was awarded the State Prize for Art and received an enthusiastic critical reception.[11] Although the film depicts the rhythms of water and light and the textures of Finnish nature with elegance and technical skill, as a whole it remains strangely lifeless. “The first films I made at the turn of the ’50s and ’60s, although I haven’t seen them [since], they seem very strange to me. They had to do with the kind of ’50s aesthetic culture and all sorts of symbolism and stuff. Now with the ’60s, social tendencies have come much more to the fore,” Jarva commented on his cinematic experiments in a television documentary in 1971. [12]

在Jarva的第一部长片电影《日或夜》(Yö vai päivä, 1962)的片头字幕中,他提及了两部Jaakko Ylinen导演的8毫米短片,分别是《风景一》与《风景2》(Maisema 1 and 2),赞扬其“成功运用全新的方式欣赏大自然的价值”。Jarva非常欣赏Ylinen使用柯达彩色胶片的做法,并赞叹说他的电影比芬兰电影史上任何影片都漂亮,甚至将《风景》称作“仅包含节奏和镜头的‘纯电影’”。受到Ylinen的激励,Jarva拍摄了最后一部与《日或夜》相关的形式实验影片。与此同期,Kari Rydman拍摄了一部影响深远的现代主义影片《Kitka——活水之诗》( Kitka – A Poem in Living WaterKitka,1963),影片镜头聚焦于感官本性,采用35毫米胶片拍摄于Kuusamo,延续了Ralph Steiner在电影《H2O》(美国,1929)的精神。电影的片头字幕自述为“活水之诗”(a peom in living water)。该片被授予国家艺术奖并获得了热烈的评论反响。虽然电影描述了水和光的韵律,以优雅与技巧描绘芬兰的自然质感,但总体而言整部电影散发出一种奇异的死寂。1971年Jarva在一部电视纪录片中这样评价自己的实验电影:“我的头一部电影拍摄于1950年代末、1960年代初,尽管(在那)之后我再也没看过它们,这些电影对我来说仍然显得很奇怪。它们体现了1950年代的某些审美情趣与象征主义元素等,而到了60年代,社会趋向则更居前沿”。

Jarva abandoned formal experiments and moved on to socially conscious narrative cinema. Echoes of the director’s avant-garde background and virtuoso mastery of the medium are most evident in the short film Frozen Food (Pakasteet, 1969). Commissioned by the Finnish food manufacturer Paulig to celebrate its 25th anniversary, the film is a rare example of meta-cinema, a parody of the making of a commissioned film executed in a playful French style. Shot in glaring colour, the film even features a sequence entirely in reverse motion, depicting the journey of a pea from the field to the freezer. The main actors of the piece are members of the crew, who converse in ironic dialogue. The electronic score, “frozen food sounds”, was produced by Erkki Kurenniemi whose futuristic music was used by Jarva and the sound designer Anssi Blomstedt also in the films Computers Serve (Tietokoneet palvelevat, 1968) and Time of Roses (Ruusujen aika, 1969).

Jarva放弃了形式试验电影,转向了社会意识的叙事电影。短片《冰冻的食物》 (Pakasteet, 1969)不仅展现了导演的前卫背景,而且证明了他在媒介应用方面的艺术造诣。这部电影受芬兰食品制造商Paulig委托,为纪念其25周年而拍摄,是一部罕见的元电影,也是对委托影片的常规拍摄所充满法式幽默的戏仿。影片色彩花哨,甚至一个片段完全处在反向镜头中,描述了一粒豌豆从田间到冰箱的旅程。主要演员都是机组成员,他们的谈话总带有讽刺挖苦的意味。“冷冻食物的声音”是Erkki Kurenniemi制作的电子乐,他的未来主义音乐也被Jarva和声音设计师Anssi Blomstedt应用在影片《计算机服务》(Tietokoneet palvelevat, 1968)和《玫瑰时间》(Ruusujen aika, 1969)中。

TARZAN IN A METROPOLIS AND AN ALEATORIC LIGHT SCULPTURE

大都市里的人猿泰山和偶发灯光雕塑

In the 1960s many important cinematic influences – such as the French New Wave or the films of Michelangelo Antonioni and Alain Resnais – arrived in Finland with very little delay and had an immediate impact on the work of the young generation of enthusiastic feature film directors. In the field of experimental cinema, however, Finland remained very much on the periphery. Symptomatic of the situation at the time was the extensive and important cross-disciplinary happening called Limppiece organised in the Ateneum Art Museum in Helsinki in April 1964. The happening was planned by the composer and musician Otto Donner, the scenographer Ralf Forsström and the film critic Pertti Lumirae.[13] It featured all kinds of artists from practically every field of art: the writers Bo Carpelan, Lassi Nummi and Jyrki Pellinen wrote texts in a live performance, the composer Kaj Chydenius greased his bare torso with Nivea, Erkki Kurenniemi from the Faculty of Music at Helsinki University created with M. A. Numminen an extremely slowly evolving electronic composition lasting for four hours, acting students fenced in the galleries, and so on. International influences were absorbed quickly, pushing the boundaries of art. Artists from the film world could not be found for the happening, however, so instead “Walt Disney’s movies” were screened. Although the solution as such was conceptually ingenious, it also suggests that film-makers were not particularly interested in cross-disciplinary events, and also perhaps that artists from other disciplines simply did not know how to shoot film.

1960年代,芬兰迅速受到很多重要的电影浪潮或导演的影响,比如法国新浪潮电影,及Michelangelo Antonioni和Alain Resnais的影片,满怀热情的年轻一代故事片导演也立刻受到了影响。然而在实验电影领域,芬兰还是处在十分边缘的地位。最能体现当时形势的事件就是1964年4月在赫尔辛基Ateneum美术馆组织的一次名为《Limppiece》的跨领域即兴演出,由作曲家、音乐家Otto Donner,舞台设计师Ralf Forsström和电影评论家Pertti Lumirae共同策划。13 它汇集了几乎所有艺术领域的各类艺术家:作家Bo Carpelan、Lassi Nummi及 Jyrki Pellinen在一次现场表演中书写文字,作曲家Kaj Chydenius与Nivea以裸体相亲互相抹油, 来自赫尔辛基大学音乐系的Erkki Kurenniemi同M. A. Numminen联合创作了一支长达四小时的缓慢变化的电子音乐,表演系的学生们在艺术馆里击剑,等等。来自国际的影响很快被吸收并由此不断扩大艺术的阈限。这场演出并无电影界的艺术家出席,却取而代之放映了瓦尔特.迪士尼的影片。虽然这种解决方法具有概念上的独创性,不过它也同样表现出电影创作者对跨领域的做法缺乏兴趣,而其他领域的艺术家或也并不知道如何拍电影。

At the same time behind the art museum, in the Ateneuminkuja arcade, the public could catch a glimpse of an entirely new kind of film. In a rented display case, the artist Matias Keskinen presented stills from imaginary movies. In the staged photos, some of them beautifully tinted by hand, the artist himself played the main role, dressed in the most fantastical costumes, in films with titles such as Tarzan in the Metropolis, Jesus Speaks to People in Helsinki, Ivan the Terrible and the Fires of Hell, The Emperor and Women, The Sun King and Lev Tolstoy – Yasnaya Polnaya. Keskinen’s stills perplexed the movie-going public in Helsinki for several years, as his display case was right next to real film ads. No times or theatres were ever mentioned in connection with the photos. The only piece of information apart from the film titles was the name of the production company: “Ajan Filmi” (Film of the Times).

与此同时,在美术馆背后的Ateneuminkuja拱廊上,公众可以瞥见一种全新的电影。在一个租来的展示柜里,艺术家Matias Keskinen展示了虚构电影的剧照。在这些剧照中,有些是手工上色,艺术家本人扮演主角,身着奇装异服。电影的标题包括《人猿泰山在大都市》(Tarzan in the Metropolis)、《耶稣对赫尔辛基人说》(Jesus Speaks to People in Helsinki)、《讨厌的伊万》(Ivan the Terrible)、《地狱之火》(the Fires of Hell)、《帝王与女人》(The Emperor and Women)、《The Sun King and Lev Tolstoy – Yasnaya Polnaya.  Keskinen》,这些虚构影片的剧照迷惑了赫尔辛基的影迷好几年,因为他刻意将展示柜安置在真的电影海报旁边。这些照片没有附加任何与之相关的时间或影院,除了电影标题以外,唯一的信息就是出品公司“时代电影”(Ajan Filmi)。

Initially, Matias Keskinen ran Ajan Filmi from a garage in the district of Lauttasaari in Helsinki until, in 1963–64, he rented empty ground-floor business premises in Helsinginkatu street. In addition to the display case project, the company’s also organised “film camps” on Pihlajasaari island just off Helsinki. Keskinen placed ads in papers, advertising for people interested in film-making and becoming a film star. His utopian dream was to combine healthy living (physical exercise, games, outdoor sports) with collective art making (photography, dance, singing, music). Lots of photographs were taken in the film camps, as well as 8-mm films, which Keskinen later actually learned to develop with his assistant. The films were exercises and sketches for a future film project, but unfortunately it never developed any further. Keskinen believed in the healing power of art. He gave homeless people accommodation in the office of Ajan Filmi and earned his living by giving haircuts in a shelter for alcoholics. After the haircut, Keskinen sat his customer in an imperial chair, put a costume on him and took a photo of the ruler. In the narrow-minded society of the day, Keskinen was indeed regarded an odd fish, outside of all possible social frameworks and alone. In 1971 Keskinen left the restless city and withdrew to Pielavesi to make art. The public at large probably knows Keskinen best for a closing item in an MTV3 newscast in autumn 1989 which showed his life’s work, a sculpture of the head of President Urho Kekkonen weighing 20 tonnes, tragically destroyed in Oulu. The extent and complexity of Keskinen’s projects were revealed fully to outsiders only later in a documentary by Veli Granö, The Imaginary Life of Matias Keskinen (Matias Keskisen kuviteltu elämä, 1991).[14]

起初Matias Keskinen在位于赫尔辛基的Lauttasaari的一间车库经营“时代电影”。直到1963至1964年间,他在Helsinginkatu街上租了几家空置的底层商铺。除了上述的展示柜工程,公司还在赫尔辛基附近的Pihlajasaari岛上组织了电影营地。Keskinen在报纸上登广告,寻找对电影制作感兴趣并想成为电影明星的人。他乌托邦式的梦想是将健康的生活方式(体育锻炼、比赛及户外体育运动)与集体的艺术创作(摄影、舞蹈、唱歌和音乐)相结合。很多剧照及8毫米电影都是在电影营地拍摄的。实际上,Keskinen后来和他的助手共同学习并制作了这些电影,它们是为将来的一个电影项目所做的练习和速写;不过可惜该项目未能得到进一步的发展。Keskinen相信艺术具有治愈力。他在时代电影办公室为无家可归的人们提供食宿。他通过在酗酒者庇护所内为别人理发赚取生活费。理发后,Keskinen让顾客坐在皇帝的宝座上,为其穿上戏服并拍摄一张统治者的照片。在今天这个狭隘的社会里,Keskinen真可被视为一个怪咖。他独立存在于所有可能的社会框架之外。1971年,Keskinen离开了繁华的城市,来到Pielavesi进行艺术创作。大多数公众可能对Keskinen了解最多的是在1989年秋天,电视台播出的展现他生活工作的MTV3新闻节目结尾所出现的作品:一座重达20吨的Urho Kekkonen总统头部雕像。它在Oulu不幸被毁。Keskinen的项目工程范围和复杂程度仅在此后Veli Granö拍摄的纪录片《Matias Keskinen的假想生活》 (Matias Keskisen kuviteltu elämä, 1991)14中才得以完整地得到展现。

The 16-mm short Spring Rain (Kevätsadetta, 1965) by the artist Juhana Blomstedt is probably one of the earliest Finnish films that intentionally broke with the conventional format of cinema. It was commissioned by the Student Theatre in Helsinki for a production of ‘concrete theatre’ of the same title. The production premiered at the Jyväskylä Festival[15]. The director of the Student Theatre, Jaakko Pakkasvirta, had also invited the director Otso Appelqvist, the composer/musician Otto Donner and the writer Markku Lahtela to participate in the project, with Blomstedt being in charge of art and set design. At the start of the show, the actors (Roope Alftan, Titta Karakorpi, Kalevi Lappalainen, Pentti Lähteenmäki and Seppo Miettinen) are on an empty stage. As the performance unfolds, they gradually fill the stage with the objects they use (tables, chairs, tyres, ladders…) until the objects prevent the actors from moving at all. Blomstedt’s film was projected from the wings directly onto the pile of things on stage using a mirror set at a 45-degree angle, providing the film with a three-dimensional projection screen. “The ‘contents’ of the shots disappear entirely when they are projected onto the assortment of objects; all that remains is a ‘light storm’ of colours and black and white, a pulse and a rhythm. It’s a type of aleatoric light sculpture in time,” Blomstedt recalls. [16] The film Spring Rain itself is an amusing collage of found footage salvaged from the dustbin of the cutting room, about half of the shots projected upside down: a motorway at night, young people dancing in the street, dolly shots in an empty landscape, heart surgery, pictures from a brewery, a boy walking inside the scaffolding of a roller coaster in an amusement park, the film lab’s fade marks, and finally sequences of a few frames from the feature film Baron X (X-paroni, 1964, directed by Risto Jarva, Jaakko Pakkasvirta, Spede Pasanen). Blomstedt has presented this, his only film to date, only one time as an independent work, at a conference of the Finnish Painters’ Union at the Old Student House in Helsinki in the early 1970s.[17]

由艺术家Juhana Blomstedt拍摄的16毫米短片《春雨》(Kevätsadetta, 1965)可能是最早有意打破传统电影模式的芬兰电影之一。该片受赫尔辛基学生剧院的委托,在一部与戏剧同名的剧院中放映,该剧在Jyväskylä艺术节上首映。学生剧院导演Jaakko Pakkasvirta还邀请了导演Otso Appelqvist、作曲家/音乐家Otto Donner以及作家Markku Lahtela参与到这个项目中来。Blomstedt负责艺术和布景设计。该剧开始时,演员们(Roope Alftan、Titta Karakorpi、Kalevi Lappalainen、Pentti Lähteenmäki和Seppo Miettinen)置身于一个空的舞台。随着表演的进行,他们渐渐用物品(桌子、椅子、轮胎、梯子… …)把舞台填满,直到东西多到演员们丝毫不能移动。Blomstedt的电影通过一个呈45度角放置的镜子从两侧直接投影到舞台上放置的那堆物品上,为电影提供了一个三维的银幕。“在影片被投影到那堆物品上之后,镜头的内容完全消失了;只剩下各种色彩组成的光线的暴风雨,黑与白,脉动与节奏。这是一种时间中的偶发灯光雕塑。”Blomstedt回忆道。16 影片《春雨》本身就是一幅令人不可思议的由从剪辑室的垃圾桶里找回的胶片所组成的拼贴画。大约有一半的镜头在放映时上下颠倒:夜晚的高速公路、在街道上跳舞的年轻人、空旷风景的推拉镜头、心脏手术、啤酒厂的图画、在游乐场的过山车脚手架上行走的男孩、电影实验室的褪色标志、以及最后出自剧情片《X男爵》(X-paroni,1964,由Risto Jarva、Jaakko Pakkasvirta、Spede Pasanen共同执导)的一连串画面。对于他迄今为止的唯一一部电影,Blomstedt只将其作为独立作品放映过一次:即1970年代芬兰画家联合会在赫尔辛基的老学生之家召开的一次会议上。17

THE KINETIC PILOT

动力学飞行员

Eino Ruutsalo performed his patriotic duty in the Continuation War from May 1942 to November 1944 as a pilot of a Fokker D.XXI. The experience left an indelible mark on the young man’s life. “Flying, I got used to the fact that images that came in front of my eyes always moved on. They never stopped! It felt necessary to give paintings that same movement as in my experiences. It was on the fast track!” Ruutsalo wrote in his memoirs of the war. For him, the connection was inevitable: “I firmly believe that my kinetic painting as a whole can be traced back to my wartime experiences of lightness and weightlessness!”[18]

1942年5月到1944年11月的后续战争期间,Eino Ruutsalo作为Fokker D.XXI型战斗机的飞行员履行了他的爱国责任。这段经历给这个年轻人的人生留下了不可磨灭的印记。Ruutsalo在他关于战争的回忆录中写道:“在飞行中,我习惯了看到不断有影像在我眼前移动,从不停止!我觉得有必要将自己经历过的这种移动体验用绘画表现出来。就像上了快车道!” 对他来说,这种联系是不可避免的:“我坚信我的整个动力学绘画源自我在战争时期有关轻重的经历!”19

Eino Ruutsalo was an artistic Jack of all trades and a cosmopolitan. He published his first novel, Toropainen Is Knocked Out (Toropainen tyrmätään, 1945) when he was only 24. In the novel, he did not seem to place much value on the mythic connection between Finns and the forest: “Finland is a big, black forest. The forest is full of all sorts of four-legged creatures. The four-legged forest creatures are called Finns…”.[19] In 1949 Ruutsalo happened to see an advertisement in the paper and travelled to New York to study at the Parson School of Design. To support his family while studying, Ruutsalo worked on skyscraper construction sites. His first film, New York – The Foggy Town (New York – usvainen kaupunki, 1952) consisted of documentary street scenes and remained a rather timid opening into moving pictures in terms of its style.

Eino Ruutsalo 是一个博而不精、四海为家的人。他24岁就出版了第一部小说《Toropainen被淘汰了》(Toropainen tyrmätään, 1945)。 在这部小说里,他似乎不太看重芬兰人与森林之间的神话联系:“芬兰是一个巨大的黑森林。森林里充斥着各种四脚的动物。这种四脚的动物叫做芬兰人… … ”19 1949年,Ruutsalo碰巧在报纸上看到一则广告,于是来到纽约在帕森设计学院(Parson School of Design)学习。为了一边学习、一边养家,Ruutsalo在摩天大楼的建筑工地打工。他的首部电影《纽约-雾都》(New York – usvainen kaupunki, 1952)由街景的纪实镜头构成,这是他从风格上向影像敞开的羞涩学步。

After his return to Finland, Ruutsalo worked as a painter and made plans for more films at the same time. In searching for a style of his own he made several films, including the lyrical documentaries Old and New Helsinki (Vanhaa ja uutta Helsinkiä, 1954), The Attic in Action (Ullakko elää, 1958) and Talking Hands (Puhuvat kädet, 1958). Ruutsalo saw the laboratory as a crucial part of film-making, a stage where film really comes to life for the first time. In fact, Ruutsalo made nearly all his films in close collaboration with the laboratory technician Aarne Syväpuro. It is also noteworthy that Ruutsalo made all his experiments on 35-mm stock. The first four independent shorts were produced by Ruutsalo and Syväpuro together; all subsequent films were produced by Ruutsalo alone.

Ruutsalo在回到芬兰后成为了一名画家,同时为更多的电影做策划。在寻求其个人电影风格的过程中,他创作了多部影片,包括抒情纪录片《新旧赫尔辛基》(Vanhaa ja uutta Helsinkiä, 1954)、《行动中的阁楼 》(Ullakko elää, 1958)以及 《说话的手》(Puhuvat kädet, 1958)。Ruutsalo将实验室视为电影创作中至关重要的部分,一个第一次真正赋予电影生命的舞台。其实Ruutsalo几乎所有的电影都是在与实验室技师Aarne Syväpuro的密切合作中创作完成的。同样值得注意的是,Ruutsalo的所有实验都是在35毫米胶片上进行的。最初的四部独立短片由Ruutsalo和 Syväpuro共同完成,此后的所有电影都由Ruutsalo独立完成。

Of the four short films produced with Syväpuro, the most memorable is Poems (Säkeitä Holapan runoista, 1960). The deliberately out-of-focus camera and skilful optical tricks created in the laboratory guarantee that the film is ultimately much more than just a slavish visualisation of Pentti Holappa’s texts. Ruutsalo nurtures it into an all-embracing, neurotic and anguished statement on the contemporary human condition. The film presents a series of intense views shot in streets, yards, stairwells and in the port of Helsinki. Yrjö Jyrinkoski delivers Holappa’s lines convincingly, supported by Herbert Eimert’s electronic composition Etüde über Tongmische. Poems secured its place in the history of Finnish cinema as the first film to use electronic music in its soundtrack.[20]

在与Syväpuro共同创作的四部短片中,最令人难忘的当属《诗歌》(Säkeitä Holapan runoista, 1960)。在实验室中创作的这部故意镜头失焦的影片及其娴熟的光学技巧确保了该片远远超越了对Pentti Holappa的文本的简单、盲目的可视化。Ruutsalo将其打造成一部包罗万象的对当代人生存境遇的神经质式痛苦的陈述。影片展现了一系列赫尔辛基街道、院子、楼梯间以及港口的镜头。在Herbert Eimert 的电子乐《Etüde über Tongmische》的辅助下,Yrjö Jyrinkoski令人信服地传达了Holappa的台词。《诗歌》作为首部用电子音乐配乐的电影在芬兰电影史上的地位不可动摇。

Ruutsalo continued to paint at the same time as he made films, but found himself at a dead end: “I had to get something more into the paintings; more motion. More expression. More everything.”[21] The decisive impetus for combining painting and film came to Ruutsalo in Yugoslavia at the Music Biennale Zagreb in 1963. Ruutsalo was impressed by the music of John Cage and the dance performances of the Ann Halprin Company: “I learned to understand the technique of alienation; when the artist has made an area of style functional and finished, he has the right to start destroying it, breaking it; to alienate the viewer and to continue on in some other area.”[22]

在创作电影的同时,Ruutsalo继续绘画,但他发现自己进入了死胡同:“我必须在绘画中加入更多的东西;更多的动作。更多的一切。”211963年,在南斯拉夫举行的萨格勒布音乐双年展(Music Biennale Zagreb)上,Ruutsalo找到了将绘画和电影相结合的决定性动力。Ruutsalo对约翰.凯奇(John Cage)的音乐及Ann Halprin 公司的舞蹈表演印象深刻:“我学会理解陌生化技巧;当艺术家使一种风格生效并完成时,他有权开始摧毁它、打破它,让观众远离它并继续在其他领域创作。”22

In the early 1960s Ruutsalo financed his art by making a few interesting short commercials. They allowed him to experiment with budding special techniques such as painting directly on the film stock and rapid animation. Clients of these 10- to 20-second films included Apu magazine (1960), Amar pantyhose (1961), Pantteri lozenges (1961) and Telefunken electronics.(1961).

1960年代初,Ruutsalo为了给艺术创作筹资,拍摄了几条有趣的广告短片,这让他有机会可以试验一些新的特殊技巧,比如在电影胶片上直接绘画及快速动画。这些10到20秒长的影片吸引到了包括Apu magazine (1960)、Amar pantyhose (1961)、Pantteri lozenges (1961) 和Telefunken electronics(1961)在内的多家客户。

Ruutsalo also directed four full-length feature films. According to the film critic Eero Tammi, they “focus on discussing the fundamental inhibitions of predominant film culture”.[23] The semi-documentary Night Moments (Hetkiä yössä, 1961) portrayed Helsinki at night in an impressionistic style, violating the conventions of plot and narrative with its heavy and slow-moving symbolism. The strange, disjointed love story in the existentialist film Windy Day (Tuulinen päivä, 1962) transported the young lovers to an island off the town of Kotka. Shot in Paris, The Whistlers (Viheltäjät, 1964) was an improvised and bold attempt by the international dandy to swim with the new wave of French cinema, while the superb The Pier (Laituri, 1965) was a satire on the ‘creative agonies’ of the literati in Helsinki. “The Pier is Ruutsalo’s most disturbing film. An aggressive, provocative, super-parodic, misanthropically bent, consciously excessive film…” Tammi wrote.[24]

Ruutsalo还执导了四部长片。影评家Eero Tammi认为,它们“主要探讨了主流电影文化的基本禁忌”。半纪录片《夜之时刻》(Hetkiä yössä, 1961)以印象主义风格描绘了夜幕下的赫尔辛基,以沉重而缓慢移动的象征主义打破了情节和叙事的传统。存在主义影片《起风之日》(Tuulinen päivä, 1962)讲述了一个发生在Kotka小镇附近的小岛上四个年轻人之间奇怪而杂乱的爱情故事。在巴黎拍摄的影片《吹口哨的人》(Viheltäjät, 1964)是这位国际花花公子在法国新电影浪潮中一次即兴的大胆尝试,而其杰作《码头》(Laituri, 1965)则是对赫尔辛基文艺界创造性的痛苦嘲弄。Tammi写道:“《码头》是Ruutsalo最令人不安的影片,这是一部野心勃勃、有煽动性的、超级戏仿的、厌世的、刻意过度表达的电影… …”

Ruutsalo’s work with film reached its peak in 1962–1967. During that period he created an amazing number of short films that were true oddities in the Finnish film world of the time. Ruutsalo himself called them ‘experimentals’. They were concentrated bursts of energy whose real subject was the cinematic format and above all the material: the direct manipulation of film stock by hand resulted at best in a hysterically flickering impression of a kinetic, magical motion possible only in cinema. “I did not want to know film just theoretically, I wanted to have a direct, concrete contact with it. That was how I came into contact with material film, the emulsion itself. At that stage I had no camera, so all I could do was make films without one,” Ruutsalo wrote later. He summarised his aims: “[My] only concern now was the painterly life of the frame; the combination of [moving] images and painting.”[25] Such cinematic abstraction was unheard of in Finland, as was Ruutsalo’s exclusive focus of all his expressive efforts on the dynamic of individual frames instead of narrative and plot.

Ruutsalo的电影创作于1962-1967年间达到了顶峰。他在此期间创作了数量惊人的短片,这在当时的芬兰电影界实属罕见。Ruutsalo本人将这些短片称作“试验”。作为创作能量的集中爆发,这些作品的真正目的在于电影形式与最为重要的材料本身:通过直接手动剪辑胶片,电影院中那些疯狂闪烁的神奇动态图片达到了最佳的放映效果,或许这些镜头也只有在电影中才会达到这般的动感与魔力。Ruutsalo后来写道:“我不仅想从原理上了解电影,我更希望能够与电影有直接的实际接触。这就是我接触感光乳剂这种胶片材料的原因。那时我手中没有摄像机,只能采用其他方法来创作电影。”他还对自己的目标作了总结:“现在[我]唯一关心的就是在这一方镜头中绘出生命;并随后将绘画和[移动]影像相结合。”25这样抽象的电影概念在芬兰属于闻所未闻,Ruutsalo撇开了叙述和情节,而将单独镜头内的动态表现作为自己所有表述的唯一焦点。

Kinetic Pictures (Kineettisiä kuvia, 1962) throws the opening gambit of Finnish abstract film into the viewer’s face. It is Ruutsalo’s first ‘experimental’ and also the purest example of his technique. The method of making the film is stated in the opening credits: “Designed and painted by Eino Ruutsalo.” The film is created almost entirely without a camera, by painting, writing, etching, punching and scratching the film stock. Ruutsalo worked for two years on the film. The final five-minute collage is three minutes shorter than the original concept and consists of about 8,600 frames or ‘individual paintings’ as Ruutsalo called them.[26] Kinetic Pictures is like a series of stylised views taken from the cockpit of a low-flying Wasp-Fokker, and it bears a certain resemblance to a reconnaissance mission Ruutsalo himself had flown at Onihmajoki river: “I had never been this close to the enemy on the ground! There it was, a ribbon flying past me. It was now so close that the overall picture disappeared and all that was left were the details. They rose up in clear, big images. Was it because I approached their stations from behind? Everything just seemed to go round and round! I saw the dugout shelters, pits and mounds of sand, and trenches propped up with logs. I saw individual Russian soldiers when they ran out of the shelters. They didn’t quite know where I was coming from. All they could hear were the engines, of course! Heads were turning, the men were turning…”.[27] Kinetic Pictures is one of Ruutsalo’s most famous and most frequently screened films, and even after all these years its loose and exuberant energy remains attractive. The improvised jazz on the soundtrack, played by Otto Donner (trumpet), Kari Hynninen (bass), Matti Koskiala (drums) and Kaarlo Kaartinen (saxophone), crowns the energetic piece and also ties it to its period. Kinetic Pictures was awarded an honorary mention at the Locarno Film Festival in Switzerland the year it was completed.[28] Subsequently both MoMA, the Museum of Modern Art in New York (1988), and Centre Pompidou in Paris (2003) have purchased 35-mm copies of the work for their permanent collections.

为芬兰观众拉开抽象电影大幕的是影片《动力学图片》(Kineettisiäkuvia,1962年)。作为Ruutsalo的第一部“试验作品”,这部电影展现了他最纯粹的技术。其开场字幕中的“设计与绘画:Eino Ruutsalo”已经揭示了这部电影的制作方法。即在几乎不使用摄像机的情况下,仅通过在电影胶片中绘画、书写、蚀刻、冲压和刮擦来进行创作。Ruutsalo为这部影片花费了两年时间。尽管影片最后五分钟的抽象画拼贴比原设计短了三分钟,但其中仍然包含了约8600帧Ruutsalo口中的“个人绘画”26。整部《动力学图片》就如同在一架低空飞行的Wasp-Fokker战斗机驾驶舱中拍摄的一系列景色,这与Ruutsalo本人曾在Onihmajoki河畔执行过飞行侦察任务有关:“我从来没有如此接近过驻扎在地面的敌人!突然间,一条缎带飞过我的机身,一切都是如此接近,以至于我开始忘记了整体画面,只剩下细节。视野中的画面大而清晰。这是因为我从后方接近地方据点吗?一切似乎总在周而复始!我看到了防空洞、坑道、砂土堆、还有原木撑起的壕沟。我能清晰地看到从掩蔽处跑出的所有俄国士兵,他们完全不知道我来自哪里。这是当然的,他们能听到的只有我的引擎声!下面的人只能转头、翻身….”27。《动力学图片》是Ruutsalo最广为人知、最频繁放映的影片,甚至多年过去,其中展现出的放松却旺盛的能量仍对观众充满吸引力。影片中由Otto Donner(小号)、Kari Hynninen(贝司)、Matti Koskiala(鼓手)和Kaarlo Kaartinen(萨克斯)即兴演奏的爵士配乐不仅起到画龙点睛的作用,还赋予了其应有的时代感。《动力学图片》在其完成的当年就在瑞士的洛迦诺电影节(Locarno Film Festival)中获得了荣誉提名28。随后,纽约现代艺术博物馆(1988年)和巴黎蓬皮杜艺术中心(2003年)都分别购买了该作品的35毫米拷贝作为永久收藏。

Two Chickens (Kaksi kanaa, 1963) was composed spontaneously on waste footage. The piece is a hysterical cavalcade of images featuring a nude female (actor Ritva Vepsä), awkward auditions, cream crackers, a floating feather and excessive amounts of paint and colour. The pictures fly past at a breathless pace, with Ruutsalo manipulating them in a fit of intuitive frenzy. Two Chickens could also be interpreted as an abstract war film and a reconnaissance flight. Perhaps the physical manipulation of the film stock (melting, etching, perforating, scratching) was a way for Ruutsalo to process painful memories of the war? Two Chickens contains so much visual stimuli packed in a short space (3 minutes 20 seconds) that after the initial shock you want to see it again and again. The sophisticated tape collage by Otto Donner on the soundtrack is a forgotten highlight of Finnish film music. Two Chickens is cinematic action painting, and in its condensed expressiveness, Ruutsalo’s most idiomatic and durable masterpiece.

《两只鸡》(Kaksi kanaa,1963年)则由许多作废镜头随意编排而成。这部作品中疯狂堆叠了许多不同的图像,其中的关键部分包括一名裸体女性(RitvaVepsä饰演)、尴尬的试镜、奶油饼干、一片浮动羽毛和过量的涂料和颜色。在Ruutsalo仅凭直觉的编排下,所有图像呼啸而过。《两只鸡》也可以理解为一部关于战争和侦察飞行的抽象电影。也许在Ruutsalo眼中,对电影胶片的实际操控(熔化、蚀刻、打孔、刮擦)已经成为了处理痛苦战争回忆的一种方式?《两只鸡》在很短的时间内(3分20秒)闪过大量的视觉刺激,以至于观众在最初的震惊后总会不断回过头来重复观看。而Otto Donner为这部影片定制的精良磁带混音配乐则是芬兰电影音乐中被遗忘的一个亮点。《两只鸡》是对绘画的电影化展示,其简洁明快的表现方式使之成为了Ruutsalo最具代表性和最经久不衰的杰作29

The Jump (Hyppy, 1965) has undeservedly been overshadowed by Kinetic Pictures and Two Chickens. True to Ruutsalo’s idiom, it is an odd combination of black humour and melodramatic anxiety. The procession of images is a natural blend of scantily clad ladies and concentration camps, hand-painted waste footage and studio shots of a man (actor Kaarlo Juurela) in felt boots. The Jump is not only Ruutsalo’s funniest film, but it is also already a milestone by virtue of its soundtrack. The avalanche of electronic sounds by Erkki Kurenniemi and Otto Donner is still amazingly fresh and brilliantly effective film music, a kind of early prototype of minimalist techno. The deafening composition is paralleled visually by a brief sequence shot in a street where a group of men and children seem to be covering their ears in pain; originally their ears were stung not by electronic noise, but by the exceptionally freezing weather in a windy street. Ruutsalo briefed viewers on how to interpret the film: “The world is devoid of all humanity and warmth. As he regards his felt boots, the subconscious mind of the small man begins to rebel, the visual world opens up. The internal relationship between the views is hard to define exactly; an escape from mechanisation or scars on the conscience of humanity.”[29]

《跳》(Hyppy,1965年)被淹没在《两只鸡》和《动力学图像》的光芒之中。这部作品完全对应了Ruutsalo的独特风格,即黑色幽默和戏剧焦虑的奇怪组合。其中展示的图像包括许多衣着暴露的女子、集中营、手绘废胶片以及摄影棚拍摄的一名穿着毛毡靴的男子(Kaarlo Juurela饰演),所有这一切在这部作品中自然游走并融为一体。《跳》不仅是Ruutsalo幽默感最高的一部作品,也是其配乐最为精彩的一部。作为高科技舞曲的一种简化版早期原型,Erkki Kurenniemi和Otto Donner为这部影片制作的电子声配乐新潮无比,而且作为电影配乐的效果也不同凡响。这些震耳欲聋的混音伴随着一段简短的街头场景,其中许多成人和孩子似乎正在痛苦地捂住自己的耳朵;而电子噪声却不是给他们带来这种痛苦的本源,真正灌入人耳的其实是异常寒冷天气下街道中的瑟瑟寒风。Ruutsalo向观众阐发了对这部影片的解读:“人性或者温暖已经远离了片中的世界。正当那名小个子男子注意到他脚下的毛毡靴时,他的潜意识开始造反并打开了另一个视觉世界。这两种视觉世界之间的内在关系很难准确定义;可能的解释是对机械化的逃避或人类良知的疤痕。”

The parallel films The Eagle (Kotka, 1962) and The Junk Artist (Romutaiteilija, 1965) depict the processes of making art. The Eagle uses dance to express the eternal longing for freedom. The graphic and fast-paced camera choreography picks up speed throughout the film, culminating in a sequence where the flying bird (dancer Riitta Vainio) is shot down. The brisk film received an honorary mention at the Oberhausen International Short Film Festival.[30] The Junk Artist is an expressionistic portrait of Ruutsalo’s artist friend Wiking Forsström who uses junk as his medium. In the film we see Forsström walking in a wasteland. His thoughts are conveyed to us through the movements of female dancers. The artist takes the junk he has found into a dark shed and begins to create. In hand-tinted and scratched sequences, the black-and-white picture changes to colour: “The billowing flames of the welding torch tell about feverish mental struggle. Motion, harmony, dynamics, form and love are pulsing in the air, spirits are at loose.”[31] Finally, the junk artist lands in a jam and is executed because of his art. The percussion-dominated score of both films was again composed by Otto Donner, and the choreographies were by Riitta Vainio, a pioneer of modern dance in Finland.

《鹰》(Kotka,1962年)和《垃圾艺术家》(Romutaiteilija,1965年)是两部描绘艺术创作过程的影片。其中《鹰》采用了舞蹈来表达对自由的永恒向往。图像和快节奏的舞蹈在整部影片中交替并不断加速,最终在飞翔小鸟(Riitta Vainio舞蹈)被击落的场景中达到了高潮。这部明快的电影在奥伯豪森国际短片电影节(Oberhausen International Short Film Festival)获得了荣誉奖30。《垃圾艺术家》则以Ruutsalo的一位艺术家朋友Wiking Forsström为主角,描绘了他以垃圾为艺术媒介的生涯。在这部影片中,观众看到Forsström在一片荒地中行走。他的思想由女舞者们的动作表达出来。Forsström从一处黑暗的棚屋中找到垃圾并开始创作。在手工着色和乱序拼贴的场景中,画面由黑白逐渐转为彩色:“焊枪中冒出的滚滚火焰代表着狂热的精神斗争。空气中涌动着各种思想,运动、和谐、动态、形态、爱和烈酒在四处弥漫31。”最后,这位垃圾艺术家陷入了僵局,并因其艺术而被判死刑。Otto Donner再次操刀,为这两部电影打造了以打击乐为主的配乐,而舞蹈编排则由芬兰现代舞先驱Riitta Vainio负责。

Human Signs (Ihmisen merkit, 1966) was made in collaboration with the Finnish author Väinö Kirstinä. The film is a 15-minute collision course of different signs and modern graphic symbols: tattoos, emblems, comics, money, traffic signs, symbols of power and ideology. Ruutsalo and Kirstinä’s cinematic glide into a visual Esperanto and urban semiotics was a bold path-breaker to Lettrist film in Finland. Yrjö Tähtelä’s narration plays with words, seeking meanings and associations: “A is for ammunition, B is for Brigitte playing in bed…”. Basically a collage of images, Human Signs rests on Kirstinä’s text; cinematically, it mostly resembles a lecture. The makers’ ambitious goal was to convey a message about “the suffering and false ideological worship caused by signs”.[32]

《人类符号》 (Ihmisen merkit,1966年)是与芬兰作家Väinö Kirstinä合作的产物。这部时长15分钟的影片展现的是许多不同标志和现代图形符号的碰撞过程:各种纹身、徽章、漫画、金钱、交通标志、权力和意识形态的符号等等。Ruutsalo和Kirstinä对于视觉世界语和城市符号学的电影化展示是芬兰Lettrist电影史中的一次大胆尝试。Yrjö Tähtelä为本片提供了寓意深长的旁白并在字里行间不断寻求着各种意义和联系:“A是指弹药,B是指在床上玩耍的美女…”。总体来说就是图像的拼贴,《人类符号》 以Kirstinä的文字为剧本;从电影的角度看,则与演讲极为类似。两位主创者的宏远目标是想通过本片传达一种信息:“符号和标志会导致痛苦和对虚无意识形态的崇拜。”32

+Plus –Minus (1967) represents the dramatic and political side of Ruutsalo. A boldly ascetic film in terms of its technique, +Plus–Minus consists of the silhouettes of actors (Yrjö Tähtelä and Leena Valasmo) shot in the studio, with the ’emotional states’ of the characters painted over the silhouettes on the celluloid. An ascetic love story spiced with a pacifist theme, the work represents a departure from Ruutsalo’s other experimental films in that the story occupies a central role in it. Perhaps because of its openly pacifist message, +Plus–Minus was the most popular of all Ruutsalo’s films in its time. It was screened at several international festivals and was included in the list of ‘the world’s 20 greatest short films’ at the International Tournée of Animation in the United States in 1968.[33]

《+加 –减》(1967)代表了Ruutsalo对自身戏剧性和政治立场的表达。该片大胆地缩减了影片的技术投入,采用摄影棚拍的演员身影(Yrjö Tähtelä和Leena Valasmo)为主要构成,角色的“情绪状态”通过在胶片的演员身影上绘画来表达。本片讲述了一个禁欲主义者加和平主义者的爱情故事,本片背离了Ruutsalo的其他试验影片,以故事内容作为影片的核心。在所有同时期的Ruutsalo电影中,《+加 –减》拥有最高的人气。除入围多个国际艺术节以外,本片还于1968年被美国国际短片展映(International Tournée of Animation)列为“全球最伟大的20部短片”之一33

ABC 123 (1967) is Ruutsalo’s second Lettrist film and signals his return to a more open cinematic form. The raw material of the film consists almost exclusively of fragments from a book of typeface samples, which Ruutsalo tore into pieces and then animated and coloured. “In the ’60s I was in the middle of an avalanche of elements, one of the most important of which were letters and montage. My material consisted of freely selected references from different areas of verbal culture which I wanted to read and rewrite in my own way,” Ruutsalo recalled the period.[34] Once again the film includes references to war. There is a lot of funeral music on the soundtrack as well as sounds of warfare, airplanes in particular. The presence of death is almost tangible when the letters and graphic signs suddenly line up into a symbolic string of bullets when a machine gun sounds on the soundtrack.

《ABC 123》(1967)是Ruutsalo创作的第二部字母主义影片,也标志着他已开始向更加开放的电影形式回归。整部影片几乎完全以字体样本集合为原始材料,Ruutsalo首先将这些材料分成碎片,随后再制作动画并着色。Ruutsalo如此回顾该时期:“整个1960年代,我手边可用的元素无数,字母和蒙太奇则是其中最重要的组成部分之一。我自由地选择来自不同地区的语言文化作为材料,随后再以自己的方式对其进行引用和改写。34”本片再次涉及战争题材。配乐除采用大量葬礼用曲外,还有战场录音、尤其是飞机引擎的轰鸣声也是同样重要的组成部分。当机枪鸣起,而片中的字母和图形标志突然排列成一连串象征性的子弹时,死亡的存在感几乎瞬间压迫到了每位观众的胸口。

The same year saw the film Food (1967), a perfectly absurd collage of images and sounds which seemingly have no rational connection with each other at all. “Our food is radioactive. Pollution falls down into our cities and over us. It is everywhere. The world is tinted with new colours, reality appears in the colours of views, values tumble, existence is a risk – only dreams and waiting remain,” Ruutsalo wrote.[35] Resembling nothing so much as automatic writing, Food is the most liberated of Ruutsalo’s works, a spastic synthesis of the potentials of kinetic cinema. All its images are made of waste footage from Ruutsalo’s earlier films. There are sequences from Two Chickens and from commercials, commissioned films and home movies. The banal, speeded-up collage of taped sounds on the soundtrack gathers in the hectic stream of consciousness painted over the celluloid: scratched faces, the statue of Marshall Mannerheim, refrigerator doors opening by themselves, geometric shapes, spring mattresses, etc. Food was in part a collective work as long sequences of the film were painted by Ruutsalo’s three children.[36]

同年拍摄的《食物》(1967)乍看之下似乎完全是图像和声音的杂乱拼贴,且两者之间没有任何合理的联系。Ruutsalo写道35:“无处不在的环境污染侵蚀了我们的城市和我们自身,放射性物质渗入了食物。世界被染成新的颜色,视野中的颜色折射出现实,道德颓败,存亡在危——唯留梦想和等待。”剧本的创作近乎自动写作,这是Ruutsalo最自由奔放的一部作品,不断释放出动力学影片应有的潜力。该片的所有图像全部来自Ruutsalo早期电影中的作废片段,包括《两只鸡》、广告及其他影片和家庭录像。整部影片中,拼接后再加速的各种陈腐磁带混音环绕着不断散发的多条纷杂意识流:脸部抓伤、Marshall Mannerheim的雕像、自动打开的冰箱门、几何形状和弹簧床垫等等。《食物》是集体创作的成果36,影片中的长镜头均由Ruutsalo的三个孩子绘制。

From the mid-1960s Ruutsalo vacillated constantly between absurdism and pacifism. Is This the World of Teddy? (Tämäkö on Teddy-karhun maailma?, 1969) signified yet another step forward on the path of pacifism. The film is made up of news photos and short dramatised fragments which Ruutsalo once again manipulated by painting. One of the greatest features of Teddy is the electronic score composed by Osmo Lindeman which was performed on Dico, an instrument designed by Erkki Kurenniemi.

自1960年代中期,Ruutsalo开始不断在荒诞主义与和平主义之间摇摆不定。《这是泰迪熊的世界吗?》(Tämäkö on Teddy-karhun maailma?,1969)则是他在和平主义道路上又前进了一步的标志。这部电影由新闻照片和戏剧化短片段组成,Ruutsalo对后者再次采用了着色进行调整。本片最显著的特点之一是由Osmo Lindeman谱写的电子配乐,其演奏用的乐器Dico由Erkki Kurenniemi亲自设计。

Later on, Ruutsalo made a few more cinematic compilations in the spirit of nostalgia for the 1960s: Memory of Yesterday (Eilispäivän muisto, 1976–79) is yet another collection of discarded and overpainted footage. It is divided into two episodes announced by the intertexts Grief and Joy. The first consists of images of mechanical urban motion, traffic accidents, signs and graveyard views. On the soundtrack we hear Hitler’s speeches and sounds of war. The second episode presents a cavalcade of images of the artist’s friends and muses. The film wearily repeats old ideas from ten years ago and does not add anything new to Ruutsalo’s output.

后来,Ruutsalo以1960年代的怀旧精神创作了更多的电影汇编:《追忆昨日》(Eilispäivän muisto,1976–1979)再次汇集了许多以往作废和过度渲染的素材。影片分为上下两集,分别以“悲”与“乐”作为标题。其中上集包含了机械化城市的运行图像、交通意外、标志和墓地场景。配乐则是希特勒的演讲和战场录音。下集所展现的则是这位艺术家的朋友和诸位缪斯女神的影像汇编。整部电影疲倦地重复着十年之前的陈旧观念,Ruutsalo并未呈现任何新的意义。

A much more interesting film is the partly documentary Poems from the ’60s (Runoja 60-luvulta, 1987). In February 1968 Ruutsalo had an extensive solo show in the Amos Anderson Art Museum, entitled Light and Motion (Valo ja liike). It featured kinetic lightworks, movable sculptures, light reliefs, experimental films, alarm lights, audio tapes and pictures of letters. In conjunction with the exhibition, a cross-disciplinary happening was organised on 9 February 1968 under the title ELECTRIC SHOCK NIGHT (SÄHKÖ-SHOKKI-ILTA) with the poets Claes Andersson, Kalevi Lappalainen and Kalevi Seilonen reading their ‘machine poems’ while Erkki Kurenniemi and Otto Donner modulated their speech in real time with an ‘electric sound machine’ devised by Kurenniemi. Shot entirely in black and white, the film is an interpretation of the event. The soundtrack is a tape made during the rehearsals. The unique texture of the machine poems provides a fine counterpoint to Ruutsalo’s stream of images, which consist mostly of discarded footage from his Lettrist films (Human Signs, 123 ABC).

相对而言,纪录片《来自1960年代的诗人》(Runoja60 luvulta,1987)则要有趣得多。1968年2月,Ruutsalo在阿莫斯安德森美术馆(Anderson Art Museum)进行了一次名为《光与运动》(Valo ja liike)的长时个展。展出的内容包括动力学光光作品、可移动雕塑、轻型浮雕、实验电影、报警灯、录音带和信件照片。为配合此次展览,另一项跨学科活动“电击之夜”(SÄHKÖ-SHOKKI-ILTA)于1968年2月9日举办,诗人Claes Andersson、Kalevi Lappalainen和Kalevi Seilonen朗读了他们的“机械诗词”作品,同时Erkki Kurenniemi和Otto Donner通过Kurenniemi设计的“电声机”对诗人的录音进行实时的调整。采用黑白拍摄的本片再现了整个活动过程。片中配乐则采用了活动排练过程中的录音。机械化诗朗诵独特的质感很好地对应了Ruutsalo的图像流,这些图像大部分都取自Ruutsalo之前在创作字母主义电影《人类符号》、《123 ABC》时所丢弃的素材。

The Finnish Film Archive organised a retrospective of Eino Ruutsalo’s films in the Orion theatre in Helsinki in 1991. For the short film series, Ruutsalo wanted to make one more film, his last. “Let’s freak out with this one,” Ruutsalo told his long-time assistant Anne Laitinen. Together they dug up previously unused footage from Ruutsalo’s films from the 1960s. The material included random pieces from commercials, pictures of car crashes, discarded footage from Night Moments and Windy Day, commissioned films and kinetic experiments, as well as unexposed stock. Ruutsalo and Laitinen processed everything that came their way by crushing the celluloid, throwing it on the floor and walking on it. “I just hope we’ve enough sand on our shoes,” Ruutsalo remarked. The 10-minute film consists almost exclusively of a stream of broken negative film. On the electronic soundtrack we hear a collective stream of consciousness by Donner, Kurenniemi and Ruutsalo from 1967. The destructive testament was christened Kinescope (1960–91). Ruutsalo never made any moving pictures after that.

1991年,芬兰国家电影资料馆在赫尔辛基Orion剧院举办了一次Eino Ruutsalo的回顾影展。Ruutsalo希望自己能拍摄最后一个短片系列。Ruutsalo告诉自己的长期助理Anne Laitinen:“这次我想更疯狂一点。”他们共同在1960年代以来的Ruutsalo电影中寻找那些从未被使用的素材。最终收集的材料包括随机广告片段、车祸照片、《夜之时刻》和《起风之日》中被丢弃的素材、委托电影、动力学实验以及从未曝光的胶片。Ruutsalo和Laitinen仔细处理了每一份能够找到的材料,无论大小、长短,全部拆散、打破。Ruutsalo说:“我只是希望步伐越稳重越好。”最终,这部时长10分钟的电影几乎完全由破碎的胶卷底片构成。片中的电子配乐则是Donner、Kurenniemi和Ruutsalo三位自1967年以来所有曲目的大集合。这部充满破坏性的电影被命名为《录像》(Kinescope,1960年至1991年)。自此,Ruutsalo再未创作过任何影像作品。

It is difficult to say how much Eino Ruutsalo had seen of the international avant-garde cinema of his time. He once remarked that he was surprised when Jeff Berner, a critic from San Francisco, compared Ruutsalo’s films with the works of Stan Brakhagen and Jonas Mekas in the latter half of the 1960s. “I had no connections with any such sector. […] The similarity was something that came from the time.”[37] On the other hand, Ruutsalo later wrote that the animated films of Jan Lenica and Walerian Borowczyk in particular were important and taught him a lot. He said he felt a strong kinship with “personal films”, as he called them, made by other international visual artists. Ruutsalo felt that he was walking in the footsteps of Viking Eggeling, Hans Richter, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Oskar Fischinger and Len Lye.[38]

Eino Ruutsalo在他的时代看过多少国际前卫电影作品?这很难说。但是,当他听说Jeff Berner,一位来自旧金山的评论家,将他的电影作品同Stan Brakhagen和Jonas Mekas创作于1960年代后半期的作品相提并论时,Ruutsalo表示非常惊讶:“我从未涉及任何这类领域…,这些相似性应该来自更早的时期。37”另一方面,Ruutsalo后来又写道,他从Jan Lenica和Walerian Borowczyk的动画电影中学到了许多对他来说尤为重要的东西。他称其他国际视觉艺术家的作品为“个人电影”并感觉自己与这些人群和他们的作品有着某种强烈的血缘关系。Ruutsalo还认为自己是在延续Viking Eggeling、Hans Richter、Marcel Duchamp、Man Ray、Oskar Fischinger和Len Lye曾经走过的道路。39

Eino Ruutsalo’s output of short films is amazing in its scope and is stylistically uneven. In just a short time span, it includes abstract expressionism, collage films, symbolic dance film and, towards the end of the 1960s, political and pacifist films. The experimentation in Ruutsalo’s short films was not appreciated by his Finnish contemporaries. The films were screened mostly at festivals in Central Europe, in Oberhausen, Locarno, Annecy and Cracow.[39]

Eino Ruutsalo创造了众多不拘一格的短片。在很短的时间跨度内,他的作品就囊括了抽象表现主义、拼贴电影、象征性的舞蹈电影并随后在1960年代接近尾声之时涉及到以政治及和平为主题的电影。他的短片实验并未得到同时代波兰艺术家们的赞赏。其作品大多只在中欧、Oberhausen、Locarno、Annecy和Cracow的电影节上映39

In the 1970s the versatile artist began making informational commissioned films, while also continuing to work with kinetic paintings, sculpture, collage and photography. The important thing was to keep moving. All in all, Ruutsalo made 132 “cinematic products” as he called them.

1970年代,这名多才多艺的艺术家开始制作新闻性质的委托电影,同时从未中断他的动力学绘画、雕塑、拼贴画和摄影工作。毕竟永不止步才是最重要的。Ruutsalo称自己的短片为“电影制品”,迄今为止,其经手创作的该类“制品”已达132部。

UNDERGROUND ARMY

地下军团

Eino Ruutsalo’s avant-garde shorts never got any followers in Finnish cinema. Examples of the free, new kind of cinema in the 1960s can instead be found within the underground movement. The vigorous movement brought music, literature, comics and pop art closer to one another, with frequent crossings of boundaries. Finland saw the arrival of psychedelic rock music, drugs, hippies and the political movement in opposition to the Vietnam War. High culture and popular culture began to mix. Young underground activists found it natural to operate in several sectors at once, free-form short films included. Their films were screened in new forums: rock concerts and happenings. The best short films of the period are a perfect reflection of the ideas of sexual liberation and expanding consciousness.

芬兰电影界从未有过Eino Ruutsalo的前卫短片的跟随者。1960年代,新的自由的电影实例相反可以在地下运动中找到。通过频繁跨界,那些轰轰烈烈的运动拉近了音乐、文学、漫画及流行艺术之间的距离。芬兰见证了迷幻摇滚音乐、毒品、嬉皮士和反对越南战争政治运动的到来。高雅文化和流行文化开始融合。年轻的地下积极分子认为同时涉足几个领域是自然之事,其中就包括形式自由的的电影短片。他们的电影在新的平台上映:摇滚音乐会和各类发生现场。这段时期最好的短片完美地反映了性解放和自我意识提升的观点。

The famous Finnish underground band The Sperm, known for its spectacular performances, organised a festival called International Organ 3 at Kulttuuritalo House in Helsinki from 21 to 26 February 1968. The programme also included a few screenings of Finnish underground movies.[40] The “42 viewers”[41] who came were rewarded with the only public screening of Erkki Kurenniemi‘s film Ex Nihilo (1968). The 13-minute collage consisted of discarded footage and failed takes from Kurenniemi’s earlier short films. Paradoxically, Kurenniemi had never shown any of these earlier films in public anywhere.[42] The print of Ex Nihilo “disappeared somewhere right after its premiere.”

著名的芬兰地下乐队“精子”(the sperms)以奇观演出著称,1968年2月21日-26日,他们在赫尔辛基的Kulttuuritalo House举行了一场名为“国际器官3”(International Organ 3)的音乐节,同期也包括芬兰地下电影的展映活动。到场的“42名观众”有幸欣赏到了Erkki Kurenniemi的影片《无中生有》(Ex Nihilo,1968)的唯一一次公映。Kurenniem早期短片中废弃的连续镜头和失败的取景构成了这部长达13分钟的拼切电影。矛盾的是,Kurenniem从未在任何公开场所播放过这些早期影片。《无中生有》的拷贝“在首映之后立马就消失了”。

Erkki Kurenniemi made altogether 14 films in the 1960s. He shot and edited them all by himself, and he also planned to make soundtracks of electronic music performed on instruments of his own making. Due to a lack of money, time or nerves, however, this last finishing touch was never realised. The reels remained in storage for years. Watching Kurenniemi’s films today, they provide startling cross-sections of topics that were current at the time.

1960年代,Erkki Kurenniemi一共制作了14部电影。他亲自操刀电影的拍摄与剪辑,并且打算用自制的乐器为电影配上电子音乐。然而由于缺乏资金、时间或精力,他的电影最终没能完美收尾。多年以来,胶卷们一直被束之高阁。如今回过头来看Kurenniemi的电影,当时它所包含的跨领域话题令人讶异地与当下社会相通。

During his studies, Kurenniemi worked as an assistant at the Department of Nuclear Physics at the University of Helsinki and as a ‘voluntary assistant’ at the Department of Musicology. The inner life of computers and new electronic music developed into a vocation and a life’s work for Kurenniemi when he began assembling a laboratory of audiotechnology at the Department of Musicology in 1961. In 1962–74 he designed and built several electronic instruments that were way ahead of their time.

就学期间,Kurenniemi是赫尔辛基大学核物理系的助教,他同时自愿担任音乐系的助教。1961年,Kurenniemi在音乐系开始装配一个音频技术实验室时意识到计算机和新电子音乐的内在生命将会成为其毕生的事业。在1962年至1974年间,他设计并制作了几款在当时就引领先锋的电子乐器。

In the satirical films The Punch Tape of Life (Elämän reikänauha, 1964) and Computer Music (1966) shot at the Department of Nuclear Physics and the Computer Centre at Turku University, Kurenniemi intuitively explores the possibilities of a symbiosis between man and machine in the light of contemporaneous knowledge. The computer, a “giant brain”, is a companion with whom we will build our future and which we can hate and mock at the same time. Electronics In The World of Tomorrow (1964) consists of photographs and geometric forms cut out from Electronics Magazine and placed on a spinning turntable, creating a vertiginous effect.

《生命的打孔纸带》(Elämän reikänauha, 1964),及在赫尔辛基大学核物理系与图尔库大学(Turku University)的计算机中心拍摄的《计算机音乐》(Computer Music,1966)两部颇具讽刺意味的影片倚靠Kurenniemi当时所掌握的知识,直觉地探索了人与机器共处的可能性。计算机是一种陪伴我们创建未来的“大脑”,与此同时它也可能遭受我们的憎恶和嘲讽。在《未来世界的电子》(Electronics In The World of Tomorrow,1964)一片中,他将电子杂志里裁剪下来的图片和几何图形放在旋转转盘上以达到令人目眩的效果。

An incorrigible techno buff, Kurenniemi would occasionally get ‘good vibes’ also from nature mysticism. In the fantastically colourful Flora & Fauna (1965), close-ups of inchworms and spiders merge in double and triple exposures with shimmering water and the darkness of a dense conifer forest. The Pathé cine camera made it possible to mechanically rewind the film to shoot ‘many layers’ on the same frames. In Fire and Water (Tuli ja vesi, 1969) the primal force of nature meets a masturbating woman in a psychedelic whirl of double-exposed images. Liberated sexuality found its way undisguised also into Kurenniemi’s semi-pornographic ‘nude films’ Sex Show 1 and Sex Show 2 (1970). Innocent fooling around is also the theme of Coveted Beauty (Tavoiteltu kaunotar, 1967) a film about a house party. Shot in Kurenniemi’s flat, it shows artists (Otto Donner, Elina Salo, Otso Appelqvist, Peter von Bagh and others) letting their hair down. The main character is played – probably without her knowledge – by Eija Pokkinen, a photo model and actor.

Kurenniemi作为一名不可救药的科技爱好者会偶而从自然神秘主义获得“灵感”。在《动植物》(Flora & Fauna,1965)这部丰富多彩的影片中到处都充满了经双倍和三倍曝光的尺蠖和蜘蛛,以及磷光闪闪的河水和茂密的针叶林中的黑暗等特写镜头。他通过百代电影摄像机的机械倒带使在同一帧中反复拍摄“多层”画面成为可能。《火与水》(Tuli ja vesi,1969年)中令人迷幻的双曝光画面里自然的原始力量与一名正在自慰的女子相遇。性解放者在Kurenniemi的半色情“裸体电影”《性表演1》和《性表演2》(Sex Show 1, Sex Show 2, 1970)中毫不遮掩地自由表达。天真愚昧也同样是家庭派对影片《令人觊觎之美》(Tavoiteltu kaunotar,1967)的主题。这部拍摄于Kurenniemi公寓的影片向人们展示了艺术家们(Otto Donner、Elina Salo、Otso Appelqvist、Peter von Bagh及其他人)的放荡不羁。影片主角由平面模特兼演员Eija Pokkinen扮演,而她大概都没意识到自己是主角。

Kurenniemi’s projects with electronic instruments involved a great deal of travelling. Winterreise (1964), Kurenniemi’s first film, is a fast-paced travelogue that makes use of the stop-motion technique. The film begins with a driving sequence shot in winter in Kurenniemi’s home village in Taipalsaari, makes a smooth transition onto skis and a kick sled on ice, and continues through to the following summer, shot in the rural idyll at Työsaari in Joutseno at the summer cottage of Kurenniemi’s friend and teacher, the famous musicologist Professor Erik Tawaststjerna. Florence (Firenze, 1970), an impressionistic, beautiful portrait of a city, was shot in part in summer 1968 when Kurenniemi was on his way to a conference on electro-acoustic music organised by Teatro Communale, where he delivered a lecture on the ‘music terminal’ he was developing at the time.[43] The double exposures were shot the following year in Finland. Carnaby Street (1971) is a spontaneous street movie, a record of ‘swinging London’ where Kurenniemi had travelled to assess the commercial potential of his instrument Dimi A. Kurenniemi also made films of entirely different kinds of travels. In dark, superimposed multiple exposures, the film Morning Glory (Huumaava elämänlanka, 1968) shows us scenes from life in a hippie community in Helsinki, shot under a red light. “Abuse of intoxicating cactus has not been observed in Finland,” claims a newspaper headline glimpsed in the film. People involved in the sensual action include The Sperm members Peter Widén and Mattijuhani Koponen, as well as Kurenniemi himself. A more tranquil, weed-smelling parallel piece, the black-and-white The House (Talo, 1968) was shot in Kurenniemi’s kitchen and features Sisko Hynninen (aka Sisko Ramsay aka Patti Bouncengård), the bass player of The Sperm, and Meri Vennamo. Christmas Mystery (Joulumysteeri, 1969) is Kurenniemi’s only dramatised short film, a kind of overstrung pagan rite. Also shot in Kurenniemi’s flat in Helsinki, the farce shows the Holy Spirit (played by Fredrik Lagus) clad in a bathrobe and an aluminium foil mask having sexual congress with the Virgin Mary (Sisko Hynninen). The Three Magi (all played by Paavo Lehtonen) study the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The Infant Jesus (Erkki Kurenniemi) is born fully grown, wearing a Christmas cap and ski goggles – and lights up a cigarette.

在Kurenniemi 附带电子乐器的作品中涉及到很多旅游的情节。Kurenniemi 的首部电影《Winterreise》(1964)是一部利用单格手法拍制的快节奏旅行见闻影片。电影的开头是在Kurenniemi的家乡Taipalsaari的冬季拍摄的一行车队,随后镜头平稳过渡到雪地上的滑雪板和雪橇,再到来年夏天,拍摄于Kurenniemi的朋友和老师、同时也是音乐学家和教授的Erik Tawaststjerna位于Joutseno的Tyosaari的别墅家中的系列镜头。《翡冷翠》(Firenze,1970)是一部令人印象深刻、宛如城市肖像画的影片,其中一部分拍摄于1968年的夏天,当时Kurenniemi 正赶赴一场由Teatro Communale 组织的电子音乐会议,他在会上发表了关于他当时正在研究的“音乐终端”的演讲。而双重曝光的镜头则在来年摄于芬兰。《卡纳比街》(Carnaby Street,1971)是一部自发的街头影片,对Kurenniemi在“摇曳伦敦”(swinging London)评估他的设备Dimi A的商业潜力的一次记录。Kurenniemi还拍摄了多部与旅行有关的不同类型的影片。在黑暗中多重曝光的影片《牵牛花》(Huumaava elämänlanka,1968)展现了在红灯下拍摄的赫尔辛基嬉皮士社区的生活场景。电影中一闪而过报纸头条新闻:“我们还未意识到,芬兰存在滥用醉人仙人掌的情况”。涉及感官表演的人包括“精子”乐队成员Peter Widén、Mattijuhani Koponen和Kurenniemi本人。另外一部相较恬静的黑白影片《房子》(Talo,1968)拍摄于Kurenniemi的厨房,由“精子”乐队的贝司手Sisko Hynninen和Meri Vennamo主演。《圣诞之谜》(Joulumysteeri,1969)是Kurenniemi仅有的一部戏剧化短片,展现了一种过度紧张的异教仪式。这出剧同样拍摄于Kurenniemi位于赫尔辛基的公寓,表现了一个穿着睡衣、戴着锡箔纸面具、同圣母玛利亚(Sisko Hynninen饰演)性交的圣灵(Fredrik Lagus饰演)。三贤士(三位角色均由Paavo Lehtonen出演)研究《西藏度亡经》。幼年耶稣(Erkki Kurenniemi饰演)出生时就已是成人,他带着圣诞帽和雪橇护镜,点燃了一支雪茄。

One particularly important event for the underground movement in Helsinki was the cross-disciplinary art festival held in Dipoli on the campus of the University of Technology from 20 to 24 March 1968. The five-day festival was a great success, featuring a chaotic provocation by The Sperm, an enormous number of other events, including first-ever screenings of classic American underground films in Finland. Peter von Bagh, the newly appointed director of the Finnish Film Archive, had managed to get P. Adams Sitney, the American critic, avant-garde propagandist and future writer of Visionary Film, to visit the event as part of his European tour and to present an extensive review of New American Cinema – the most dynamic new cinema to be had at the time. Held partly in the Dipoli Building, partly in the movie theatre of the Finnish Film Archive, the five-day programme of screenings featured dozens of films, including Jack Smith’s Flaming Creatures, Ron Rice’s Senseless and Chumlum, Stan Brakhage’s Art of Vision, Andy Warhol’s Harlot, Gregory Markopoulos’ Himself as Herself, as well as several works by Bruce Conner and Robert Breer. According to later accounts, Sitney’s impassioned introductions and films unprecedented in these latitudes had a mind-blowing effect on nearly everyone regarding the new possibilities of cinema. “The audience sat as if it were in the movies for the first time, undoubtedly experiencing the same kind of joy as audiences at the beginning of the century, when they saw Lumiere’s trains rushing towards them, or a child eating,” Elina Katainen described the mood in Kino magazine.[44] “We were absolutely flabbergasted,” recalls Erik Uddström who was studying photography at the time.

1968年3月20至24日在Dipoli理工大学校园举办的跨学科艺术节对赫尔辛基地下运动特别重要。这场为期五天的音乐节是一次巨大的成功,有“精子”乐队乱哄哄的挑衅和其它多到数不过来的活动,包括在芬兰首映的美国经典地下影片。刚刚上任的芬兰电影档案馆主任Peter von Bagh设法邀请到了美国评论家、前卫宣传家及《电影的视野》(Visionary Film)一书的作者P. Adams Sitney作为其欧洲之旅的其中一站到场参加,并对当时最具活力的新型电影院“新美国影院”进行评估。这场为期五天的放映活动分别在Dipoli大楼与芬兰电影档案馆的电影院举行,放映了数十部影片,包括Jack Smith的《热血造物》(Flaming Creatures)、Ron Rice的《无感》和《Chumlum》、Stan Brakhage的《视野的艺术》(Art of Vision)、Andy Warhol的《Harlot》、 Gregory Markopoulos的《他自己作为她自己》(Himself as Herself)及 Bruce Conner和Robert Breer的其他作品。

On the same occasion in Dipoli, Timo Aarniala organised a ‘Warhol happening’ in which the 20th Century Fox logo was projected in a 16-mm loop – possibly the first film loop in Finland – and the audience was handed 3D spectacles from the stores of the Universal film studios to watch it.[45] Aarniala got the idea from a flexi-disc that came with the Aspen art magazine. On the disk The Velvet Underground performs a piece entitled Loop.[46] At the end of the piece, the needle of the record player gets stuck in the locked groove, playing it again and again endlessly. The monotonic non-music that sounded like atonal noise was a revelation to Aarniala: “If you can make that repetition in music, hey! Why can’t you do it with images too?”

Timo Aarniala当时还在Dipoli组织了一场“沃霍尔发生”(Warhol happening)的影展,将20世纪福克斯影业公司的商标循环投映在16毫米胶片上——这可能是芬兰第一段电影循环——每位观众还获得了由环球影业提供的3D眼镜。Aarniala的灵感来源于艺术杂志《Aspen》随刊附赠的一张碟片,录制了地下丝绒乐队(The Velvet Underground)演奏的一首名为《循环》(Loop)的单曲。当曲子快要播完时,唱机的针头被卡在闭纹内,于是曲子的一部分被循环播放。这种听来单调的噪音却启发了Aarniala:“如果你能够把这种反复播放应用在音乐中,嘿!那为什么不能用在图像上呢?”

Aarniala formulated his views in connection with a survey in the sample issue of the new Filmihullu (Film Buff) magazine in 1968: “I would like to make two- to three-minute long experimental short films. They would not be expensive to make, and you can say just as much in short films as in long ones.”[47] Aarniala had already been a cinéaste for many years and was studying photography at the University of Industrial Arts in Helsinki in 1964. At no stage did he consider a career as a film director in the traditional sense, preferring to work with musicians. One of Aarniala’s favourite bands was coming to Finland to give a concert: The Who, which was at the peak of its career at the time. Aarniala persuaded his fellow students Anki Lindqvist, Erkki Seiro and Timo Linnasalo to pool their meagre university grants to buy as much 16-mm film as possible, and so they rushed to the airport to meet the band, with Aarniala in the lead. The result is an enjoyable music documentary of exceptional ruggedness and primitive power, where the film-makers follow the band at the airport and in their hotel, in addition to documenting the concert held at the new Hockey Stadium in Helsinki on May Day 1967. Shot in the spirit of the English Free Cinema movement, the dense occasional piece was first shown publicly in the 1990s under the title The Who in Finland or The Who in Helsinki. Three weeks after The Who concert, Jimi Hendrix gave a concert in Finland, but Aarniala was no longer able to acquire film for shooting.

1968年,Aarniala在新杂志《电影杂话》(Filmihullu)的样刊中所发表的一篇调查里阐述了自己的观点:“我想做一些两三分钟长的实验短片。这些短片的成本不会太高,你可以说短片的成本和长片差不多。” Aarniala是一位资深电影工作者,并于1964年在赫尔辛基工业艺术大学就读摄影。他从未考虑过把传统意义上的电影导演作为自己的职业,而是更喜欢同音乐家待在一起。那时候Aarniala最喜欢的一支乐队“谁人”(The Who)正处鼎盛时期,并计划来芬兰办演唱会。Aarniala说服他的同学Anki Lindqvist、Erkki Seiro和Timo Linnasalo一起拿出微薄的助学金尽可能多地购买16毫米胶卷,然后冲向机场迎接乐队,Aarniala跑在最前面。结果他们拍摄了一部关于影片制作人在机场和宾馆追踪谁人乐队及记录1967年5月1日在赫尔辛基新落成的曲棍球场内举行的谁人演唱会的音乐纪录片。影片令人愉快地表现出一股异常坚定和原始的力量。本着英国自由电影运动的精神,这部充满偶然色彩的影片以《谁人乐队在芬兰》(The Who in Finland)或《谁人乐队在赫尔辛基》(The Who in Helsinki)的标题在1990年代首映。谁人乐队的演唱会结束三周后,Jimi Hendrix也在芬兰举行了演唱会,但Aarniala却没有足够的胶片了。

This was a period when the idea of moving pictures expanded in scope. Celluloid was no longer the only material used for projecting images. The use of shocking colours, strobe lights and consciousness-expanding substances actually marked a kind of return to the pre-cinematic era, to the age of magic lanterns and early cinematographic innovations. Aarniala, Heikki ‘Tooke’ Junnila and Appe Vanajas developed, together with a motley group of friends, a psychedelic light show put on at all sorts of events, concerts and performances. The show included a light organ, photographic slides, found and stolen pictures, customised projectors and ‘chemical slides’ that changed their shape as they warmed up. In a trick adapted from Chinese shadow play, the silhouettes of a man and a woman looked over a view that changed constantly in front of their eyes. “Combined with the slides, the shadows were true cinema,” says Aarniala. Sometimes the show also included traditional film, such as clips cut secretly from propaganda reels of the Finland-China Society. The title of the light show changed constantly. It could be called Joyful Wisdom Enterprises, or TruColor Enterprises in homage to the colour system in Nicholas Ray’s film Johnny Guitar. The show was new and unexpected in its every incarnation. It evolved over time and, according to Aarniala, reached its zenith at a Sami culture event organised by Kaj Franck at the Helsinki School of Economics. Composed of nothing but abstract ‘crystal slides’, the performance depicted the magical flaring of the Aurora Borealis. In the late 1960s the Light Show was in a class of its own in Finland in terms of visual ingenuity.

这是一个电影理念迅速扩大影响的时期。胶片不再是影像放映的唯一材料。对绚丽色彩、闪光灯和能够引起强烈幻觉的化学物质的使用在事实上标志着某种对前电影时代的回归,回顾早期放映机和早期电影摄影术创新的单纯岁月。Aarniala、Heikki ‘Tooke’ Junnila和Appe Vanajas连同他们的朋友圈共同开发了一种能够用在所有赛事、音乐会和演出中的迷幻灯光秀。这种灯光秀包括发光体、幻灯片、魔幻图片、依照客户具体要求制造的放映机以及升温后能够改变形状的化学投影片。在一种灵感得自中国皮影戏的把戏中,一名男子与一名女子的轮廓似乎在人们的眼前不断变化。“如果再加上幻灯片,这些影子就是真正的电影了,” Aarniala说。有时这种秀还会包括传统电影,如从芬兰-中国社团宣传册上偷偷剪下来的视频剪辑。这种灯光秀的标题总是在变。它可能被叫做“快乐智慧公司”(Wisdom Enterprises)或“真色彩公司”(TruColor Enterprises),以此来纪念Nicholas Ray的电影《荒漠怪客》(Johnny Guitar)中的色系。这种秀在每一次转型时都是全新而出乎意料的。按照Aarniala的说法,这种秀超越了时间,并于Kaj Franck在赫尔辛基财经学校组织的Sami文化运动中达到顶峰。虽说演出仅由抽象的幻灯片组成,却依然能够描绘出北极光的神奇绚丽。在1960年代末的芬兰,灯光秀在视觉创造力上曾是独一无二的。

Since those times Aarniala has made himself a career in visual art, comics and book and record covers. He has also organised eccentric screenings of mainstream films: Jaws (1975) was shown at the Yrjönkatu indoor swimming pool where you could watch the film either swimming naked in the pool or floating on a beach mattress. In the Heureka Science Centre, Aarniala showed the films Back to the Future 1–3 (1985, 1989, 1990) as a simultaneous triple projection side by side on a single screen so as to “make the rules of American-style narrative clear once and for all.”

自那时起,Aarniala已经把自己的一生献给了视觉艺术、漫画、书籍和纪录片封面。他还组织了对主流电影的非常规放映:在Yrjönkatu室内游泳池播出《大白鲨》(Jaws,1975),观众可以一边在泳池里游泳或躺在沙滩垫上,一边观看电影。在Heureka科学馆,Aarniala利用三重投影技术在一个屏幕上同时播放电影《回到未来》系列三部曲(Back to the Future,1985、1989、1990)以“彻底弄清楚美国式叙事规则。”

A SUITCASE OF MULTI-IMAGES

手提箱中的多重影像

“The language of the cinema is not a language. This is something the generation of literary film-makers has a hard time understanding. Cinema is energy transferred onto film,” formulated Peter Widén in an essay written for Iiris magazine published in 1970, when he was 24. Widén was the most famous member of the underground band The Sperm. During the band’s chaotic gigs, Widén rarely played any instrument, preferring instead to handle the visual side of the show by projecting his own 8-mm and 16-mm films for the audience simultaneously with the rest of the performance.

Peter Widén24岁时,在发行于1970年代的Iiris杂志发表文章说:“电影的语言不是一种语言。许多文艺电影制作人对此很难理解。电影是传输到胶片上的能量。”Widén 是地下乐队“精子”中最著名的成员。在乐队闹哄哄的演出期间,Widén很少使用任何乐器;在其他成员表演的同时,他喜欢为观众放映自己的8毫米和16毫米的胶卷电影,掌控演出的视觉呈现。

Taking photos and making films was for Widén a natural thing, like breathing. He actually thought in images: “Film for me is more real the more things there are in it”. True to this idea many of his films were made by rewinding the film after shooting and exposing the same frames over and over again. Sometimes there could be as many as ten multiple exposures one on top of the other. “At that point it started getting kind of overloaded,” Widén recalls. The original reason for the method was the high price of film stock, but over time Widén learned to enjoy the hysterical impression it produced. Writing about his film Blue Ducks (Siniset sorsat, 1968) Widén speculated about its aesthetics: “I think everything points to the fact that the basic idea of the film is as much the medium itself as its content […] Its message is simple: in spite of its complex structure, the chaos of images is a precise depiction of what I see around me – not of what happens inside me. That is something for the viewer to experience, if possible.”[48]

拍照和拍电影对Widén而言就像呼吸般自然。他其实就是一个形象思维的人:“对我来说,电影包含的东西越多就越真实”。基于这个想法,他的很多影片制作是在一遍遍地拍摄和曝光相同的画面之后把胶卷倒带。有时可能一个叠着一个多达10倍的多重曝光。 据他回忆,“那时有点开始超负荷。”采用这种方法的起因是胶片价格高,但是随着时间的推移,Widén 学会享受它所带来的歇斯底里式的体验。Widén在为其影片《蓝鸭子》(Siniset sorsat,1968)写影评时如此思考它的审美:“我觉得一切事实表明,电影的基本概念是介质本身即电影内容[…]道理很简单:尽管它结构复杂,但纷繁的图像可以精确描述我所看到的四周环境——而非我内心所想。如果可以,这就是观看者将会感受到的体验。”

Peter Widén had been an active photographer and had acquired his first 8-mm film camera when he was 14. When needed, he borrowed a 16-mm camera from his friend Herbert Yrjölä. “I always had some camera or other with me,” he says, recalling the 1960s. A self-taught film-maker, he produced a number of restless films. Widén has said that he was inspired to make the films when he was visiting Erkki Kurenniemi in 1967, when the Swedish composer Ralph Lundsten was staying there. Lundsten had made a few experimental short films, and Widén especially recalls “a certain 16-mm film shot through a small hole, depicting the burning of a body in the oven of a crematorium” which Lundsten showed that night.[49] “The ultimate awakening” for Widén was Sitney’s New American Cinema series, in particular Jonas Mekas’s Circus Notebook (1966). Among Finnish film-makers, Eino Ruutsalo was by far the greatest inspiration for Widén. In long conversations in his studio, Ruutsalo encouraged his younger colleagues such as Widén to make non-commercial films: “Ruutsalo was my mentor.” In 1966–68 Widén actually studied film-making in the night school of the Department of Photography at the University of Industrial Arts, although he says that instruction at the time was almost non-existent.

Peter Widén一直是一名活跃的摄影师,他在 14岁那年就得到了第一部8毫米相机。如果有需要,他会从朋友Herbert Yrjölä那里借一部16​​毫米相机。 “我总是有这样或那样的相机,”他回顾1960年代时说。这位自学成才的电影制作人创作了一些不安分的影片。Widén说他的电影灵感来自1967年对Erkki Kurenniemi的探访。当时瑞典作曲家Ralph Lundsten也在那里。Lundsten拍了几部实验短片,某天晚上,他通过小孔以16厘米胶片拍摄了一部记录火葬场焚烧尸体景象的短片,Widén对此格外记忆犹新。而最终促使 Widén开窍的是Sitney的新美国电影系列,尤其是Jonas Mekas的《马戏团笔记本》(Circus Notebook,1966)。在芬兰的电影制片人中,Eino Ruutsalo给予了Widén最重要的灵感,他在工作室中与年轻的同事们长期交流,并鼓励Widé等人制作非商业电影:“Ruutsalo是我的导师。” 实际上1966年至1968年间,Widén在工艺美术大学摄影系的夜校学习电影制作,尽管他认为当时的学习几乎一无所用。

Widén estimates that the combined duration of his cinematic output is about ten hours. He never considered himself a ‘director’ but rather a ‘film-maker’. In his shaky works it is often difficult to tell what is an intentional and exciting art of randomness, and what is merely boring trial and error. “For the most part they were aesthetic exercises, sketches, something indefinite for some future job which I didn’t really know anything about, I just felt I was making a film.”[50] While they were being made, the films had no titles. Later on it was practical to give working titles to some of the reels, although Widén himself never considered them finished ‘works’.

Widén估算他所制作的电影加起来不超过10小时。他从不认为自己是名“导演”,而是一个“电影制作人”。在他震撼人心的作品中,人们往往很难分辨什么是刻意策划而令人意外的艺术随机性,而什么不过是无聊的试验和错误。 “大部分都是美学练习和草图,未来的工作充满不确定性,我对此一无所知,我只知道我在拍电影。”在制作过程中,影片并没有标题,部分胶卷后来才被加上临时名称,这也只是为了利于实用,虽然Widén从来没有认为那些“作品”已经完成。

The short format or apparent vagueness of Widén’s films did not stop him from showing them in public, in fact rather the opposite was the case. He was always willing to show them whenever an opportunity presented itself. The silent reels were projected in slightly different ways every time, accompanied by a record or as part of some larger whole, usually a concert by The Sperm or some other performance. The films were often projected as if they were a light show, not neatly in the middle of a screen, but on the performers on stage, on pillars and walls, using several projectors at once. Widén recalls that most of the performances took place at the Old Student House in Helsinki. Another important venue was at a hippie commune on Lönnrotinkatu street where Widén experimented using multiple projectors and prisms in front of the lenses. “The room was suddenly filled with pictures! I wanted to take multi-images further, ” he says. During The Sperm’s summer tour in 1970, which lasted no less than three months without a break, Widén managed for the first time to acquire the back-projection screens he had coveted, as well as three projectors.

即便Widén’的电影比较短或明显含糊不清,但这都不能阻止他在公众场合为人们放映电影。其实情况恰恰相反。他总是抓住一切机会向人们展示自己的电影。每次无声影片的放映方式都略有不同,它或伴随着一张唱片或作为更大的整体演出的一部分,通常是“精子”演唱会或其他一些表演。电影的放映好比是一场灯光秀,它并不是规则地投映在屏幕中央,而是投映在舞台的表演者、柱子或墙壁上,并且多台投影机同时使用。据Widén回忆,大部分的表演在赫尔辛基的老学生之家进行。另外一个重要场地则是在 Lönnrotinkatu大街的嬉皮公社,Widén尝试在镜头之前使用多台投影机和棱镜。他说:“房间里顿时充满了图像!我想进一步制作多重图像,”1970年,“精子”乐队举办了持续超过三个月无间断的夏季巡演,Widén首次得到了他梦寐以求的背投屏幕和三台投影机。

Peter Widén’s projects were almost invariably sexually charged. His uncensored self-expression acquired programmatic, even obsessive, qualities as he spontaneously used film to shoot his sexual fantasies. Widén rationalised his motives in Iiris magazine: “Sexual arousal can be stimulated freely, but no discharge is allowed; this is a prime cause of the anxiety in today’s frustrated people. It is like an intercourse that keeps on being interrupted. You are stimulated. Desire arises, another stimulus arrives, kills one desire and kindles another. This would be to the good if it could be regulated by the individual, but society has passed its natural course ages ago and is now living in overdrive.”[51]Although Widén often shot his films alone, some of his projects were born out of collective effort, in many senses of the word. “Widén’s films were based entirely on the idea of free sex. In fact he didn’t have much else in them,” the director-producer Claes Olsson recalls. “They were mostly group sex couched in a cinematic form.”[52]

Peter Widén的作品几乎无一例外地以性为主题。他无拘无束的自我表达具有计划性甚至是强迫性,他很自然地用胶片表达他的性幻想。Widén在Iiris杂志上理性地阐述自己的动机:“性唤起可以被随意触发,但从不允许被释放,这是导致今天人们焦虑的首要原因,这就好比性交过程一直被打断。你受到刺激,产生欲望,另一种刺激接踵而至,浇灭欲望,然后唤起新的欲望。如果人们可以自我调节,这无疑是无害的,但社会已经超过了自然年龄,现在正在超速发展。”虽然Widén 经常单独拍摄电影,但他的部分作品同样离不开集体的努力。 “Widén的电影完全基于性的自由。事实上,他并没有关注太多其他方面。”导演制片人克拉斯·奥尔森回忆道,“它们大多是以电影形式表达的群体性交。”

The Death of Art (Taiteen kuolema, 1968) is Widén’s most famous film, a so-called masturbation flick. The film contains shots of intercourse between a man (Mattijuhani Koponen) and a woman, of cats and ducks copulating, and of masturbation ending in ejaculation (Widén himself). Widén had shown the film as part of The Sperm’s concert in Oulu, but it was not until it was screened in Helsinki at the Old Student House on 2 December 1968 that it made its way into the annals of Finnish film. The Central Criminal Police confiscated the film (2 minutes 45 seconds) and launched a public obscenity investigation. Widén received a two-month prison sentence, which he served in a labour colony. He is the only Finnish film-maker to have been sentenced to prison because of his work. The authorities destroyed the reel of The Death of Art by cutting it into four pieces with an axe and then incinerating them. Legend has it that in the same gig by The Sperm, the band’s lead singer Mattijuhani Koponen had sex with a woman on top of a grand piano, resulting in a seven-month prison sentence.

《艺术之死》(Taiteen kuolema, 1968)是Widén最著名的电影,也就是所谓的自慰电影。这部电影拍摄了一名男子(Mattijuhani Koponen)与一名女子之间的性交,还有猫与鸭子的交配,并以Widén自己的手淫射精结尾。这部影片在Oulu的“精子”演唱会上放映,不过直到1968年12月2日它在赫尔辛基老学生之家的放映后,才被载入芬兰的电影史册。中央刑事警察没收了电影胶卷(2分45秒)并对此展开公开淫秽调查。Widén被判两个月的监禁,并在失业收容所服刑。他是唯一一个因工作而被判刑的芬兰电影制作人。当局销毁了《艺术之死》的胶卷,用斧头将其砍成四块后焚烧。据传“精子”乐队的主唱Mattijuhani Koponen由于在一架钢琴上和女人做爱而被判处7个月的监禁。

Widén’s longest work was Finnish Winter War (Suomen talvisota, 1970), a “slightly more narrative” film designed and produced together with M.A. Numminen and the rest of the Suomen talvisota band. M.A. Numminen, who later made himself a career as a folk artist and a popular singer, was a cinéaste himself. As early as 1963 he had shot two silent movies on 9.5-mm Pathé stock at the Montaasi film club. Brick Wall (Tiiliseinä, 1963) is a barren, formalistic record of a wall on Aurorankatu street in Helsinki. The more dramatic Glass of Water (Vesilasi, 1963) features several clever stop-motion tricks, the most memorable perhaps being the merging of a man’s and a woman’s face as they alternate frame by frame. Numminen describes the three-minute piece as “a surrealistic love story between two roommates, a dandy and a nurse, inspired by a screening of Buñuel and Dali’s Un Chien Andalou“.

Widén最长的作品是《芬兰冬季战争》(Suomen talvisota,1970),一部“略带叙事风格”的影片,由M.A. Numminen及Suomen talvisota乐队的其他成员共同设计并出品。M.A. Numminen原本是一个电影制作人,后来成为民间艺术家和当红歌手,早在1963年他就已在Montaasi电影俱乐部使用9.5毫米百代摄像机拍摄了两部无声电影。《砖墙》(Tiiliseinä,1963)以荒芜的形式主义风格记录了赫尔辛基Aurorankatu大街上的一堵墙。更为戏剧性的《水杯》(Vesilasi,1963)则体现了几种定格拍制的技巧,最令人难忘的也许是一名男子与一名女子在逐帧交替时脸的拼合。 Numminen如此介绍这三分钟片段:“花花公子和护士之间的超现实爱情故事,灵感来自Buñuel和达利的《一条安达鲁狗》。”

Finnish Winter War was a collective improvisation shot by Widén and Numminen in the forests in Turku and Helsinki. The film shows members of the Suomen talvisota band rehearsing for some great, revolutionary operation, armed now with cap guns, now with electric guitars. In a tight spot, they read instructions from Mao’s Little Red Book. In his uninhibited style, Widén intersperses scenes of the military manoeuvres with shots of the laying of the foundation stone of Finlandia Hall. The cast thus came to include also people such as President Urho Kekkonen and the architect Alvar Aalto. In addition to Numminen, the men shown fighting on the front included the poets Markku Into, Jarkko Laine and Pentti Kejonen, the singer Rauli Badding Somerjoki, the future Minister of Social Affairs and Health Vappu Taipale, and a group of actors from the Student Theatre. The film was completed just before one of the most legendary LPs of Finnish rock music, Suomen Talvisota 1939-40: Underground-rock (Love Records, 1970), was released. The shoots resulted in 25 minutes of finished footage, which according to Widén was shown a few times, spontaneously synchronised with tracks from the album.

《芬兰冬季战争》是Widén和Numminen在Turku和赫尔辛基的集体即兴创作。影片展示了Suomen talvisota乐队成员手持玩具手枪和电吉他,为伟大革命行动进行演练的过程。在紧要关头,他们从毛泽东的红宝书中获得指示。Widén风格不羁,铺设了芬兰大厦的基石来点缀军事演习场所。因此演员阵容包括总统Urho Kekkone和建筑师Alvar Aalto。除了Numminen,前线战斗的男子包括诗人Markku Into、Jarkko Laine、Pentti Kejonen和歌手Rauli Badding Somerjoki,未来的社会事务部长和卫生部长Vappu Taipale,还有学生剧团的一群演员。电影刚巧赶在芬兰摇滚乐史上最具传奇色彩的唱片专辑的问世之前,即《Suomen Talvisota 1939-40:地下摇滚》(爱之专辑,1970)。拍摄镜头最终时长25分钟,据Widén说,它放映了好几次且自然与专辑曲目同步。

Widén’s next project was envisaged as “the same kind of movie with the band Wigwam, but I tried to plan it a bit more ahead, although it did not have a plot either.” The idea for the film had come from the band. “They wanted to make it, and I never figured out why,” Widén says. He managed to shoot 30–40 minutes before their ways parted and the project wound up. The Wigwam film was different from Widén’s earlier works in that, apart from Finnish Winter War, it was the only one which had none of his hallmark, “double exposures”. Widén describes the footage as lingering, “Antonionian” mood shots taken in the centre of Helsinki. He particularly recalls a long slow pan from the roof of the Hotel Torni out over a hazy sea. The last time Widén used a film camera was in summer 1978. He shot a demonstration by the Finnish Army in Kaivopuisto Park in Helsinki, where the public was shown a manikin dressed in army clothes being burnt with napalm.

Widén对下一件作品的设想是“为Wigwam乐队拍摄同一类电影,但我试着尽量提前计划,尽管同样没有情节。”电影的构思源自乐队。“他们想要实现它,我也不知道为什么。”Widén说。他拍摄了30-40分钟,直到两人分道扬镳,项目终止。Wigwam一片和Widén早期的作品不同,除了《芬兰冬季战争》,这是唯一一部没有“双重曝光”特点的电影。对Widén来说,在赫尔辛基市中心拍摄的“安东尼奥尼式”的情绪镜头在他脑海中挥之不去。他对从Torni酒店屋顶到朦胧大海的长镜头记忆犹新。Widén最后一次使用胶片相机是在1978年夏天。他在赫尔辛基的Kaivopuisto公园拍摄芬兰军队的示威过程,人们看到穿着军衣的假人被凝固汽油弹燃烧。

Peter Widén’s movies met with a cruel fate. All that remains is a 14-minute sequence of Finnish Winter War which is in good condition. All his other films seem scandalously to either have been suppressed or to have disappeared. Working today as a restaurateur in Luleå in the north of Sweden, Widén recalls the suitcase in which he kept all his 8-mm and 16-mm reels in the early 1970s. M.A. Numminen recalls that the suitcase would have been deposited “in the attic of a certain dentist in Espoo”. However, in some poetic way it is fitting that nearly all evidence of the work of one of the key film-makers of the underground movement in Finland has been destroyed. These films were not meant to be kept in museum collections, but were occasional, transient utility articles that opposed the ‘system’.

Peter Widén的电影见证了残酷的命运。唯一完好留存至今的只有《芬兰冬季战争》的14分钟片段。令人愤慨的是,他的其他电影要么被压制、要么已然消失了。如今他在瑞典北部的Luleå开了一家餐馆。据Widén回忆,他的手提箱中仍藏有所有1970年代初的8毫米和16毫米胶卷。据M.A. Numminen回忆,手提箱本应存放在“Espoo的一位牙医的阁楼上”。然而,从某种诗意的角度看,把芬兰地下运动的重要电影制片人的所有作品与证据几乎完全销毁也在情理之中。这些影片并不该成为博物馆的藏品,而曾是反对“系统”的偶然发生、短暂易逝的实在之物。

MISCHIEF AT THE UNIVERSITY

大学时的淘气

Courses in film-making were introduced in the Department of Photography at the University of Industrial Arts in 1959. The courses varied in quality, and instruction was unsystematic. Financial resources were meagre and the students received only three minutes of film stock for their projects.

工艺美术大学的摄影系于1959年引入了电影制作的课程。课程鱼龙混杂,教程无章可循。财政资源非常有限,学生只能得到3分钟的库存胶片来创作作品。

One of the students was Ismo Sajakorpi, who used his savings to buy another three minutes in addition to the stock he got from school. The Hatch (Luukku, 1967) is a powerful film of its time featuring young girls and boys hanging out in the square in front of the Bio Bio movie theatre. With a natural documentary approach, Sajakorpi and the cameraman Sakari Rimminen captured the easygoing loitering mood at a central site for drug dealing in Helsinki.

其中有位名叫Ismo Sajakorpi的学生,除了学校提供的库存胶卷,他还用自己的积蓄买了另外的三分钟胶片。《The Hatch》(Luukku,1967年)是当时一部震撼人心的影片,讲述了一群年轻女孩和男孩在Bio Bio电影院广场上聚会。Sajakorpi与摄影师SAKARI Rimminen采用自然的纪实手法,在赫尔辛基中央站点捕捉逍遥闲荡者进行毒品交易的画面。

A rare thing in Finland at the time was The Whole Truth And Nothing But The Truth (1968, later presented also under the title Arento), a rigorously structuralist film shot on 35-mm stock. The piece was made as a collective effort by the students Timo Aarniala, Pirjo Honkasalo, Anki Lindqvist, Timo Linnasalo, Inger Nylund and Erkki Seiro. Here is a fragment from the team’s notes from 1968: “The film was made as an exercise for the course in cinematic method for the 3rd-year class. The team has worked as a single entity without any division of tasks: the film has no director, cinematographer, etc. The film was made by reversing the usual order of production: the method was chosen first, and only then the subject. The idea was to adapt a musical structure into cinema. The only shot in the film was a 30-second take made in the Arento hairdressing salon. All other pictures were produced in the laboratory from this single shot by an optical copy machine. Realistic sound effects were produced using filters, plate reverbs, etc., and combining them into a kind of concrete music. The final result was created on the editing table.”[53] The senior teacher of the school, Raimo Hallama, had made a deal with the laboratory of Suomi-Filmi where post-production took place. With the abstract partial enlargements of the one shot throbbing on the screen, it is the film’s graininess that steals the show. The woman exits the salon again and again. Finally the original wide-angle shot – the whole truth – is seen in its entirety, and the setting becomes understandable. We hear a woman’s voice saying: “Did I forget something?” The electronic soundtrack of the serial piece is made by manipulating the whirring sounds of equipment in the salon, transposing the mundane situation beyond realism, into a shadowy land of ghosts.

《全部的真相与全都不是真的》(The Whole Truth And Nothing But The Truth,1968,后又名《Arento》) 是一部严格的结构主义电影,使用35毫米胶片拍摄,在当时的芬兰比较罕见。这件作品由学生 Timo Aarniala、Pirjo Honkasalo、Anki Lindqvist、Timo Linnasalo、Inger Nylund与Erkki Seiro共同完成。以下片段摘自1968的团队笔记:“这部电影是三年级​​电影方法课的练习。小组作为一个单一实体,不设分工:电影没有导演,也没有摄影师。电影的制作过程颠倒了正常的制作秩序,我们首先挑选方法,然后才是主题。我们想把音乐的结构融入到电影。影片唯一的拍摄片段是在Arento美发沙龙的30秒。所有其它图像都是通过光学复印机的单镜头在实验室中拍摄完成的。通过使用过滤器和板式混响并将之结合为一种具体音乐,营造出逼真的声音效果。最终影片在剪辑桌上诞生。”学校的高级教师Raimo Hallama与芬兰影业公司的实验室达成了协议,在后者的实验室中完成后期制作。随着抽象而局部放大的镜头在屏幕上悸动,影片的颗粒感成为观看的重心。女子一遍又一遍地离开沙龙。原本的广角拍摄终于将全部的真相完全揭露,现场变得容易理解。我们听到一个女子的声音说:“我忘了什么东西吗?”一系列的电子配乐是在沙龙中操纵设备而发出嗡嗡声,超越了现实主义的寻常,不断变换,直至进入阴暗的鬼神世界。

Dressed in national costume, the Maiden of Finland frolicks about on a romantic riverbank in the warm summer weather. Soon she is pleasuring herself with a dildo. A bearded man sits dejectedly on the edge of his bed. Elsewhere, a man and a woman are getting into bed. The sexual act is over before it has a chance to start as the man starts to masturbate wearily under the covers. Finally, two boys meet in a park and walk away together. The melancholy piece entitled Beautiful People (1969) is composed entirely of disjointed episodes. The three-minute movie by Matti Kuortti, Erkki Peltomaa and Pekka Ervamaa extols the theme of sexual liberation. “Our senior teacher Hallama liked everything that was perverted. He laughed his head off when he saw our movie,” Kuortti recalls.

《芬兰少女》(Maiden of Finland)身着民族服装,揭开了一个发生在温暖夏季的浪漫河岸的故事。她使用假阳具来取悦自己。一个留着大胡子的男人沮丧地坐在床边。其他地方,一名男子和一名女子正在上床。性行为还未开始就已结束,因为该名男子在被子下面疲倦地手淫。最后,两个男孩在公园见面并一起走开。忧伤的影片《美丽的人》(Beautiful People,1969)完全由脱节的情节组成。来自Matti Kuortti、Erkki Peltomaa和Pekka Ervamaa的三分钟电影宣扬性解放的主题。“我们的老师Hallama喜欢一切反常的事物,他看了我们的电影,笑歪了脖子。”Kuortti回忆道。

Nain, nein, nine (1969; the title is a play of words with homonyms of the English word ‘nine’: Finnish ‘nain’ means ‘I fuck’, the German ‘nein’ means ‘no’) by Tero Saarinen, Tapio Suominen and Sakari Rimminen is a film essay along the same lines. A man sits on a toilet seat, concentrating on emptying his bowels. In English, the voice-over lists observations of the human condition: “… tortured children, corruption, betrayal, violence, indifference…” The disturbing five-minute piece consists of short staged scenes and succeeds in alienating the viewer from all possible rational or sensible meanings. In the last take the man returns to the toilet seat and vomits.

Tero Saarinen、Tapio Suominen和Sakari Rimminen创作的《Nain, nein, nine》(1969;标题采用英语单词“九”的同音异义单词:芬兰的“nain”表示“我操”,德语的“nein”表示“没有”)是一部类似的散文电影。一名男子坐在马桶上,集中注意力要把自己的肠道排空。英语画外音罗列了所观察到的人类现状:“……备受折磨的儿童、腐败、背叛、暴力、冷漠……”令人不安的五分钟由简短的场景组成,成功地将观众同所有可能的理性或合理意义隔裂。在影片最后一个镜头中,这名男子返回到马桶,开始呕吐。

Iconoclastic underground is the theme also in the film Halleluja (1969) by Erkki Seiro and Elina Katainen. Seiro recalls that Katainen got the idea for the film from a book of instructions for young people attending confirmation school, Story of the Smooth Ring (Sileän sormuksen tarina, 1955). Halleluja mocks the Christian-bourgeois norms and taboos of society by depicting the sexual desires of a young male student who moves into new lodgings. Because of the explicit depiction of onanism and blasphemy in the movie, in was immediately prohibited by the Finnish Board of Film Classification.

Erkki SeiroElina Katainen制作的影片《哈利路亚》(Halleluja,1969)同样以反传统的地下姿态为主题。Seiro回忆说,Katainen是从一本教导年轻人加入礼教学校的题为《光滑圆环的故事》(Sileän sormuksen tarina,1955)的书中获得了电影创作的灵感。《哈利路亚》嘲笑基督教-资产阶级的社会教条和禁忌,描绘了一个年轻的男学生在入住新家之后产生的性欲。因为影片充斥了赤裸裸的自慰和亵渎,芬兰电影分级委员会立即将之列为禁片。

In 1969, Erik Uddström used his allocated 16-mm film stock and an open reel of his Nagra tape recorder to make a film entitled Drink Piss Freak. A man (Peter Widén) is lying on a bed. With a blissful expression on his face, he drinks his own urine from a bucket through a garden hose. A woman bustling about mixes her own elixirs into the drink. Cut to an ‘underground night’ at the Old Student House on 12 April 1969, into the midst of a psychedelic light show and a jam session by the band The Sikiöt (The Foetuses). Finally, Uddström completes the circle by returning to the flat we saw at the beginning, where the man is falling into rapture to the sound of Ravi Shankar’s music.

1969年,Erik Uddström用学校分配的16毫米库存胶片和开盘式Nagra录音机着手摄制电影《喝小便怪胎》(Drink Piss Freak)。一名男子(Peter Widén)躺在床上,脸上洋溢着幸福的表情,他通过花园软管喝下水桶中自己的尿液。一名女子忙着把她的酏剂混合成饮料。镜头切换到1969年4月12日老学生之家的地下之夜,进入到一片迷幻灯光表演和 Sikiöt 乐队(Foetuses)的即兴摇滚演奏。最后,Uddström返回我们最初看到的公寓,那名男子正为Ravi Shankar的音乐而迷狂。

The next year Uddström made a fascinating jazzy diary film about his girlfriend, the actress Terhi Panula. Uddström had admired the way John Cassavetes combined jazz and moving pictures “into a single resounding whole” in the film Shadows (1959). Entitled Terhi (1970), the fragile and personal work shows us the “everyday life of a movie star” – Terhi Panula had just become a star thanks to the film Burrball (Takiaispallo, 1970, dir. Veli-Matti Saikkonen). The intimate shots of her life in private are juxtaposed with glimpses from the Suosikki fan magazine and the Terhi paper doll, symbolic of the pressures of being a celebrity. In the symbolic final sequence, Terhi washes her blood-stained hands in a lake and sits in a tree sawing the branch she sits on.

第二年Uddström制作了一部关于他女友即演员Terhi Panula的爵士风格的日记影片。 Uddström非常佩服John Cassavetes能在电影《阴影》(1959)中把爵士乐和动画“结合成一个响亮的整体”。这部名为《Terhi》(1970)的脆弱而私密的影片展示了一位“电影明星的日常生活”——Terhi Panul的成名归功于电影《Burrball》(Takiaispallo,1970,dir. Veli-Matti Saikkonen)。她私下里的亲密镜头与Suosikki影迷杂志社和Terhi纸娃娃并列,反映出做一个名人所承受的巨大压力。在影片结尾的象征性的镜头中,Terhi在湖中清洗着她血迹斑斑的双手,坐在一棵树上,望着树枝发呆。

PICTURES OF WOMEN, PICTURES OF MEN

女人的图像,男人的图像

In May 1968, Jaakko Talaskivi got a grant of six thousand marks for the production of the film A Kiss One Suudelma. Unfortunately, half of the grant remained unclaimed when the Board of Film Classification exceptionally prohibited all performances of the film, because it “showed simultaneously and in close-up the genitals of three naked women in a horizontal-vertical position.”[54] Today Talaskivi’s film no longer seems particularly indecent. In the opening sequence shot in a candid camera style, we see a couple kissing and passers-by gaping at them. The body of the film has a lot of nudity and female-to-female tenderness in it, accompanied by a Japanese-style score. A Kiss One Suudelma consists of deliberately modernistic visual narrative from beginning to end, with many exciting solutions in composition and the use of colour. At times the picture zooms into the original frame with the help of an optical printer, sometimes it divides into a split screen with tiny frames. The movie was produced by FJ-filmi and it was apparently screened a few times at international festivals, despite being censored at home.

1968年5月,Jaakko Talaskivi 获得了6000马克的拨款用来制作电影《A Kiss One Suudelma》。不幸的是,一半的拨款还没来得及领,电影分级委员会就明令禁止这部影片的放映权,因为它“用特写镜头拍摄了同时处于水平垂直位置的三名裸体女子的生殖器”。Talaskivi现在的电影似乎没什么特别不雅,他的电影风格日渐坦率,在开放的段落镜头下,我们看到一对夫妇正在接吻,而一旁的路人盯着他们看。这部电影的主体有很多裸体和女性之间的柔情,伴随着日本风格的配乐。电影《A Kiss One Suudelma》自始至终以现代主义的视觉叙事组成,在构图和色彩方面的运用令人惊叹。有时在光学晒片机的帮助下,画面可以放大到原始帧,有时又分散为无数个散帧。电影由FJ-filmi制作出品,尽管在国内被禁映,但它还是在国际电影节上多次公开放映。

A couple of years previously, Talaskivi had directed a short impressionistic documentary about Jean-Luc Godard’s visit to Finland. Commissioned by Suomi-Filmi, the black-and-white Jean-Luc Godard vit sa vie (Jean-Luc Godard Living His Life, 1965) is a quickly made report of the famous director’s visit and also a parallel work to Aarniala’s film about The Who. Godard had come to Finland for a festival of French cinema, and in Talaskivi’s film he talks about his working method to reporters milling around. The work captures beautifully the spontaneity of the New Wave and disregards all normal conventions of commissioned films. For example, the film rests entirely on dialogue, yet it does not contain a single shot where the soundtrack is in sync with the picture.

几年以前,Talaskivi执导了一部关于让-吕克.戈达尔(Jean-Luc Godard)访问芬兰的印象派纪录短片。由芬兰影业委托,这部题为《让-吕克.戈达尔和他的生活》(Jean-Luc Godard vit sa vie,1965)的黑白电影快速报道了这位著名导演的访问,该片也是Aarniala的《谁人》(The Who)一片的平行作品。当时戈达尔为参加一场法国电影节来到芬兰,在Talaskivi的影片中,他与纷至沓来的记者们分享了他的工作方法。作品完美捕捉了新浪潮的自发性,摒弃了委托定制影片的通俗惯例。如,这部电影完全采用对话形式,但它一个配音与画面同步的镜头都没有。

In 1969, Elina Katainen, who later carved herself a career as an animator and editor, made commercials for Filmihullu magazine, shown in conjunction with screenings of the Finnish Film Archive in the Joukola cinema. Filled with explosive energy, the short commercials are almost all of them hand-painted naivistic mood pieces, distillations of the desires of cinephiles. In just a few dozen seconds, these short masterpieces employ both signs of the zeitgeist as well as cut-out frames from the films of Jörn Donner and Jean-Luc Godard. It is even said that President Urho Kekkonen and his wife once saw with their own eyes a pig chasing the Finnish flag, eating it and then defecating an advertising slogan, when one of Katainen’s Filmihullu agitations was shown before the screening of Buster Keaton’s The Navigator (1924) in the Film Archive.

1969年,Elina Katainen(后来成为了一名职业的漫画家和编辑)为《电影杂说》杂志制作商业广告片并投放在Joukola剧院的芬兰电影资料馆中。简短的广告充满了爆炸性的能量,几乎所有的广告都爆发出情绪和影迷愿望的升华。短短几十秒内,这些简短的杰作网络了时代精神的标志,以及Jörn Donner和让-吕克.戈达尔影片中的截帧。据说当时Buster Keaton的《导航仪》(The Navigator,1924)在芬兰资料馆上映之前,率先播放了Katainen为《电影杂说》杂志制作的某个广告,于是Urho Kekkonen总统和总统妻子亲眼看到一只猪在追逐一面芬兰国旗并把国旗吃掉,然后喊出了广告口号。

In Hermaphrodite (Hermafrodiitti, 1970) by Mattijuhani Koponen and Seppo Vesterinen, Markus Heikkerö and Koponen play two boys making out, with a hermaphrodite (Matti Vartiainen) pouring eggs onto them. The idea was to show the film at the Old Student House on the 6th of December at an event entitled Teatterin suomalainen elämänmuoto (The Finnish Lebensform of Theatre). The Film Classification Board had no eye for the finer points of the story and prohibited it for all audiences. This did not faze Vesterinen and his friend Appe Vanajas. They cut up the 16-mm copy into pieces and mounted the individual shots into frames to be shown as slides, since the prohibition only applied to moving pictures.[55]

《雌雄同体》(Hermafrodiitti,1970)由Mattijuhani KoponenSeppo Vesterinen拍摄,Markus Heikkerö 和 Koponen 分别扮演正在性交的两个男孩,一个雌雄同体者(Matti Vartiainen)把鸡蛋放到他们身上。这部影片是为了于同年12月6日在老学生之家的一场题为“芬兰Lebensform剧院”(Teatterin suomalainen elämänmuoto)的活动上放映。电影分级委员没从电影里找出一丁点闪光点,下令禁止一切放映。这可没有难倒Vesterinen和他的朋友Appe Vanajas。他们将16毫米的成片逐帧切割,并将单个镜头逐个制作为幻灯片;因为禁令只对运动的图像有效。

THE PLAGUE BEFORE A TIME OF SILENCE

沉默时代之前的瘟疫

Hitler’s Clerk (Hitlerin kirjuri, 1966) was a short drama by Kari Karmasalo, an erstwhile student of interior design. The film depicted the plight of a disturbed voyeur in a city. Moving in the nether registers of slapstick humour, the film got branded with the highest possible age category marking: K-18. It could only be screened “on the condition that the film be shown solely at events organised by the Student Union of the University of Turku in the Turku Art Museum during the ‘Student Art Events 1966’ festival between 26 and 30 October 1966”.[56]

《希特勒的书记员》(Hitlerin kirjuri,1966)是一部由Kari Karmasalo制作的短剧,他以前是一名室内设计的学生。这部影片描述了一名城市窥淫癖的困境。作为一部揭露社会阴暗面的幽默闹剧,这部电影得到了同类组别的最好成绩:K-18。它只能在1966年10月26-30日期间在Turku大学学生会举办的“1996届学生艺术活动”上放映,地点就在Turku美术馆 。

Soon the Karmasalo team, Kati Siikarla, Inger Nylund and Seppo Vesterinen – also known as the Rutto-filmi (Plague Film) production company – released their first film, Return of the Toilet Seat Man (WC-pyttymiehen paluu, 1968), conceived and shot by Vesterinen. The programmatic three-minute piece features pissing on a scale model of the Finnish Parliament House, which is sent aloft in a red balloon at the end.

此后不久,Karmasalo团队,即 Kati Siikarla、Inger Nylund和Seppo Vesterinen——又名瘟疫电影(Rutto filmi)制作公司——发行了他们的第一部电影《马桶男的回归》(Return of the Toilet Seat Man,1968),由Vesterinen构思并拍摄。这部精心策划的三分钟短片描绘了在芬兰议会大厦的模型上撒尿、随后模型在片尾被一个红色气球带到空中的情景。

In 1970, the Rutto-filmi collective put together The Swan of Konala (Konalan joutsen), perhaps the most famous underground film in Finland ever, one that has even achieved cult status. The film begins with a close-up of female genitalia, with Rauli Badding Somerjoki singing on the soundtrack: “In the beginning, the imperialists created war. And the earth became without form, and void. And the spirit of Nixon moved upon the face of Vietnam…”. This was followed by a dynamic sequence of shots from a military parade. Heikki Liedes, “Associate Professor of Marxism”, is shown eating breakfast cereals and driving absentmindedly around in his car. The soundtrack is a collage consisting of fragments of topical news and commercials: Raid insect repellent, Heftaplast weatherstrip, Aktuell dressing gowns, Fairy washing-up liquid… The camera records demonstrations against imperialism and militarism. Cut to a lecture hall at the University of Helsinki, where we hear a long, exhausting lecture on Socialism and the personal history of Karl Marx delivered by Liedes. At the end of the film, we are shown a demonstration with dogs trained for border guard duty and military parades. The visual style is slow and tentative. One senses a genuine need to take a stand and a desire to find an appropriate form for abstract political ideas, but ultimately the film remains cinematically formless. It did not pass completely unappreciated, however, receiving no less than two State Film Awards. According to Ilkka Kippola, researcher at the Finnish Film Archive, The Swan of Konala is “the most anarchistic film ever made in this country”.

1970年代,Rutto filmi团队共同创作了影片《Konala的天鹅》(Konalan joutsen),它也许是芬兰有史以来最有名的地下电影,获得了无数狂热的追捧。影片把女性生殖器特写作为开头,Rauli Badding Somerjoki为电影原声献唱:“最初,帝国主义发动战争。地球变得无章可循,一切都是那么虚无。尼克松的精神逼近越南……”紧接着是军队阅兵的动态镜头。Heikki Liedes,“马克思主义副教授”,吃着谷物早餐,心不在焉地驾驶汽车。电影配乐是时事新闻和广告片段的拼贴:雷达杀虫剂、Heftaplast密封条、AKTUELL家居服、童话洗涤液…反对帝国主义和军国主义的示威游行被相机记录下来。镜头切换到赫尔辛基大学演讲厅,Liedes先生发表有关社会主义和卡尔.马克思个人历史的冗长演讲。影片结尾,人群和狗示威游行,这群狗专门被训练于边境巡逻和军事阅兵。影片的视觉风格缓慢而具有试探性。观者真切体会到对表明立场的需要,与为抽象的政治思想寻找合适表达方式的欲望,但最终从电影角度看,它毫无形式可言。然而,它未被完全否定,还获得至少两个以上的国家电影奖。芬兰电影资料馆研究员Ilkka Kippola称《Konala的天鹅》是“这个国家有史以来最无政府主义的影片”。

After this, underground emerged above ground, giving rise in a short period of time to some interesting ‘subversive’ underground-influenced feature films. These included the collage-like Summer Rebellion (Kesäkapina, 1970) by Jaakko Pakkasvirta; Niilo’s Apprenticeship (Niilon oppivuodet, 1971), a collective improvisational experiment by Pakkasvirta and students of the Theatre Academy and the Department of Photography at the University of Industrial Arts; and Peter von Bagh‘s brilliant meta-film The Count (Kreivi, 1971) about the womaniser ‘Count’ Ylermi Lindgren. These films remain the wildest departures from the tradition of realist narrative cinema in Finland to have been made for the general public. Poster Guerrillas[2] (Julisteiden liimaajat, dir. Tuomo-Juhani Vuorenmaa, 1970) threw on the silver screen a vision of Finland as a police state that suppresses its rebels by violence. The film was released at the Tampere Film Festival as “the first Finnish underground movie”. “There were about four hundred people in the audience, because it had been advertised extensively. When the film started, it was impossible to tell what was happening on the screen for the first 15 minutes. And it was the same for the second, and the third and the fourth quarter of an hour. The audience began thinning out, until only a handful remained,” programme planner Raimo Silius recalls the unlucky premier of Poster Guerrillas.[57] Castle in the Air (Pilvilinna, 1970), an quirky look at school democracy by Sakari Rimminen, was advertised in the papers through a paradox: “Not for priests. Not for the police. Not for bleeding hearts. Not for fossils. Not for parents. Not for relics. Not for those in denial. Not for jailors. A film for young people that also the intolerant should see.”[58] The full-length documentary Fuck Off! – Images from Finland (Perkele! Kuvia Suomesta, 1971) was a manifesto against censorship and bourgeois society. The team consisting of Jörn Donner, Erkki Seiro and Jaakko Talaskivi used the alienating idiom of underground cinema to create shocking effects with no attempt to maintain any elegance or style. Discarded scenes from Seiro’s and Elina Katainen’s Halleluja were a useful source of material that supported the sexual-anarchistic overall mood of the piece.

在此之后,地下电影开始浮出水面,在很短的时间内出现了许多受到地下电影影响的有趣的、颠覆性的故事片。包括Jaakko Pakkasvirta的《夏季起义》(Kesäkapina, 1970);《尼洛的学徒制》(Niilon oppivuodet, 1971),一个集体的即兴实验,由Pakkasvirta和工艺美术大学摄影系和戏剧学院的学生共同完成;Peter von Bagh制作的精彩元电影《伯爵》(Kreivi,1971),讲述了好色之徒Ylermi Lindgren伯爵。这些影片疯狂背离了芬兰现实主义叙事电影的传统,真正为公众而创作。《海报游击队》(Julisteiden liimaajat, dir. Tuomo-Juhani Vuorenmaa, 1970)在银幕上把芬兰呈现为一个极权国家,用暴力镇压反抗。该电影作为第一部芬兰地下电影在Tampere电影节公映。策划人Raimo Silius在回忆当时不走运的首映时说:“现场约有四百名观众,因为之前对它进行了广泛的宣传。影片开头的一刻钟,你也许根本不知道它要讲什么。然后到了第二个一刻钟还是一样,直到一个小时都是如此。观众开始逐渐离场,只有少数几个坚持到了最后。” Sakari Rimminen的《空中城堡》(Pilvilinna,1970)以古怪的视角观察校园民主,登在报纸上的广告也自相矛盾:“不是为了牧师。不是为了警察,不是为了滥发善心者,不是为了食古不化者,不是为了家长,不是为了死者,不是为了那些反对者,不是为了狱卒,这是一部为年轻人而作的影片,那些不容异议的人也应该看看。”纪实长片《他妈的!——来自芬兰的图像》(Perkele! Kuvia Suomesta, 1971)宣扬对审查制度和资产阶级社会的不满和抗议。团队由Jörn DonnerErkki SeiroJaakko Talaskiv组成, 运用地下电影疏离的风格创造出令人震惊的效果,完全无意保留丝毫的优雅或时尚。Seiro和Elina Katainen的影片《哈利路亚》中被遗弃的场景和片段成为有用的材料以支持影片整体上的性-无政府主义情绪。

The mid-1970s nevertheless seems to have been a quieter time in the field of non-commissioned short film. Apparently there were very few personal and idiosyncratic films made at that time.

虽然1970年代中期非委托定制类的电影短片似乎一直悄然无声,不过总体而言,当时很少出现个人特色鲜明的影片。

NEW WAVE EVANGELISM

新浪潮福音

Amateur film-makers produced an enormous number of independent short films in the 1970s in Finland. Most of these Super 8 efforts were quite conservative, however, slavishly imitating the language of ‘real films’. Yet there were exceptions among the more innovative amateurs, most notably Pasi ‘Sleeping’ Myllymäki from Hämeenlinna.

1970年代的芬兰,业余电影制作人生产了大量的独立短片。绝大多数的超级八录像带都相当保守,却仍会盲目模仿“真正电影”的语言。不过其中也有例外:具有创新精神的业余爱好者,其中最值得一提的就是来自Hämeenlinna的“沉睡的帕西”(Pasi ‘Sleeping’ Myllymäki)。

Myllymäki graduated as a graphic designer from the Lahti Institute of Crafts and Design in 1976 and got a day job in the Department of Visual Design at the Iittala glassworks. Inspired by the do-it-yourself spirit of the punk movement, he began planning Super 8 shorts of his own. “My aim from the beginning was to inject the fierce independence and unbridled frenzy of punk into film,” Myllymäki says. He recalls being influenced by the Hungarian painter Victor Vasarely and the Canadian animator Norman McLaren, whose films he had seen at the Tampere Short Film Festival. Having no camera of his own, Myllymäki began collaborating with Risto Laakkonen, whom he met at the DIY film-makers’ club in Hämeenlinna. The meeting proved propitious. Laakkonen, whose day job was in the printing industry, had grown frustrated with the stagnant ideas of the DIY film-makers and was already contemplating giving up film-making altogether, when he met Myllymäki whose mind was teeming with new ideas. Working at night, in the weekends and on holidays, the duo made altogether over 40 short films between 1976 and 1985. All films are finished works with magnetic sound, and nearly all are less than three minutes in duration.

Myllymäki1976年毕业于Lahti艺术设计学院,他是一名平面设计师,在Iittala玻璃工厂的视觉设计系谋得一职。受到庞克运动“自己动手”的启发,他开始策划自己的超级八短片。Myllymäki说:“我的目标从一开始就是要为电影注入坚实的独立性和肆无忌惮的朋克狂潮。”他曾在Tampere短片电影节上看过匈牙利画家Victor Vasarely和加拿大动画家Norman McLaren的影片并受其影响。由于他自己没有摄像机,Myllymäki开始和Risto Laakkonen合作。他俩在Hämeenlinna的DIY电影俱乐部相遇。事实证明这次见面卓有成效。Laakkonen在印刷行业从事全职工作,他对DIY电影俱乐部的停滞不前感到沮丧,并已在考虑放弃电影制作,直到他遇见点子王Myllymäki。两人在1976年和1985年期间,利用晚上、周末和节假日一共创作了40多部短片。所有完成的影片均配磁带录音,几乎所有短片的时长都不到三分钟。

Their first effort, Omena The Apple (1976) is a “posterish” trick film, according to Myllymäki. The fruit levitating over a table was done with the help of a stiff steel wire contraption in Myllymäki’s parents’ home in Turenki. The work was placed last in the local DIY film competition. From the beginning Myllymäki wanted to make his films as cost-effectively as possible. There must be nothing superfluous or extra in them. Another important point was “perfect sound synchronisation” although the technical facilities at hand were just an 8-mm projector and Laakkonen’s old Uher reel-to-reel tape recorder.

Myllymäki说,他们的第一部作品《欧美那苹果》(Omena The Apple,1976)采用“posterish”特效。Myllymäki的父母家位于Turenki,借助父母家中的硬钢线装置,他们成功地把苹果悬浮在一张桌子上。作品成为当地DIY电影比赛的殿军。从一开始,Myllymäki就希望尽可能地降低电影成本,确保没有多余的费用支出。另外很重要的一点是“完美的声音同步”,但手头仅有的技术设备就是8毫米放映机和Laakkonen的老式Uher盘式录音机。

Pasi Myllymäki and Risto Laakkonen drew inspiration from the conventional circles of amateur film-makers, and many of their films were actually created as direct provocative gestures to the reviews of these marginal hobbyists. Yet the films remain universal in their themes. The “hypnotic experimental animation” entitled Hyvää yötä Good Night (1978) is based on a Polaroid picture of Pasi’s face taken by Eino O. Koskinen, exhibition designer and Myllymäki’s fellow employee at Iittala. Myllymäki enlarged the picture, rasterised it and turned it into a graphic, almost abstract, series of variations. The cinematic self-portrait was Myllymäki’s breakthrough in the 8-mm film community. It was awarded the silver medal in the fantasy series of the Finnish DIY film-makers’ competition, and was selected to be included in the international ‘Olympic games’ of amateur cinema, the Unica Annual Festival, held in Baku in the Soviet Union. The film was a comment on the sleepiness of the amateur film-maker circles, down to its very title. “It is visually a perfect synthesis of kinetics and surrealism. Good Night signifies a breakthrough into the bruised zone between insomnia and nightmare,” Myllymäki wrote in his preface to the film.[59] “The long introductory sequence seeks to push the viewers even deeper into their somnolent state, and when this is accomplished, the film moves into a finale where the viewer’s consciousness is torn to the margins of madness and the viewer is subjected to the hypnotic stare emanating from the film.”[60]

Pasi Myllymäki和Risto Laakkonen的灵感来自于业余电影制作者的常规社交圈,实际上他们很多电影的创作是对这些边缘爱好者的评价的直接挑衅。然而,电影主题通常具有普遍意义。名为《Hyvää yötä晚安》(1978)的“催眠实验动画”基于展览设计师、Myllymäki在 Iittala的员工之一Eino O. Koskinen拍摄的Pasi面部的一次成像照片展开创作。Myllymäki把照片扩大并点阵化,再将之变成一系列近乎抽象的图形化变形。用影像自拍是Myllymäki在8毫米胶片界的一大突破。它在芬兰DIY电影比赛的梦幻系列中获得银牌,还被选入业余电影的国际“奥运会”——在前苏联的Baku举办的Unica年度庆典。一如片名,这部影片反映出业余电影制作圈的沉睡状态。“这从视觉上是动力学和超现实主义的完美合成。良好的睡眠标志着突破失眠和恶梦之间的伤区。”Myllymäki为他的电影作序如是。“长篇开场白的目的是推动观众进入更深的沉睡状态,在此之后,电影也就临近尾声,观众的意识被撕裂到疯狂的边缘,并受制于电影发出的催眠目光。”

The film Sleeping (1979) continued the same theme: “It is a rousing stab into the gunky eye of Finnish amateur cinema. The cinematic eye of these circles is sleeping – WE MUST TEAR AWAY THE SCALES FROM THOSE EYES! It is stupidity to be napping when confronted by such a magnificent medium,” Myllymäki wrote.[61] The playful tone of the previous films had now become openly belligerent: “Film should no longer be experienced as a dream. Until now, viewers could watch safely from a distance what was happening to the actors. Now the film will happen to the viewers. The age of direct cinema has begun.”[62] The provocative Sleeping is easy to see as a programmatic key to Myllymäki’s output. The extended television version of the film begins with a reference to Buñuel and Dali’s Un Chien Andalou, a symbolic close-up of the cutting of an eye. We are treated to scratched, abstract film, followed by rapidly changing, perforated and scratched landscapes. The soundtrack is full of juicy, clever effects, starting with a racy guitar riff by Myllymäki played at high speed, reminiscent of the famous intro in the Sex Pistols’ Pretty Vacant. One of the distinctive features in Myllymäki’s later films is the way people, especially their faces, are covered up. This recurring motif appears in a memorable scene in Sleeping where a man (Myllymäki himself) walks about in the yard of an apartment building, repeatedly covering his face with a white sheet of paper. When his face appears from behind the sheet, it is scratched out. The images recalling the stream of consciousness technique present us with a disturbing sense of shame. All that remains is the landscape, the gesture and the act of watching.

影片《睡》(Sleeping,1979)延续了相同的主题:“它充满活力地刺入芬兰业余电影油腻的眼睛,这些圈子的电影眼正在沉睡——我们必须撕开那双眼睛的尺度!在这种宏伟的媒介面前打盹儿是愚蠢的。” Myllymäki写道。以前的电影中俏皮的语气现在已经变成公开的宣战:“电影不应该再被当做一个梦想来体验,以前观众与电影保持了一定距离,站在远处观看演员所经历的一切;现在观众将亲身经历电影,直接电影的时代已经到来。”影片《睡》所发出的挑衅可以很容易地被看作是Myllymäk作品的计划关键。影片的扩展电视版以 Buñuel 和达利的《一条安达卢西亚狗》作为起始参考,一个聚焦眼睛的象征性大特写。我们看到的是满布刮痕且抽象的电影胶片,紧接着就是瞬息万变、千疮百孔的风景。配乐经过生动巧妙的处理,开头是Myllymäki快速弹奏活泼的吉他,让人想起性手枪乐队的名曲《漂亮的虚空》(Pretty Vacant)的前奏。在Myllymäki的后期电影中有一个鲜明的特点,就是人们、尤其是脸被掩盖的方式。这类场景也出现在《睡》中成为令人难忘的一幕,一名男子(Myllymäki自己)走在一座公寓楼的院子里,反复用一张白纸遮脸。当他的脸从白纸后面出现时已经被划伤了。照片让人回忆起意识流技术,呈现出一种令人惴惴不安的羞耻感。所剩下的只有欣赏风景、姿态和观看行为。

The judges of the Finnish Federation of Amateur Film-makers did not appreciate Sleeping, calling Myllymäki’s movies “underground films”. Sleeping was censored and the Federation refused to include it in its competition series. The year before, the same fate befell Drive Carefully (Aja hiljaa, 1978), a visualisation of a hit song by the band Kontra, which was described as “a road movie for people with the mental age of 12-year-old boys”. Incensed, Myllymäki took the nickname ‘Sleeping’ and in March 1979 he founded a fanzine called Maanalainen kaitaelokuva (MK) (Underground DIY Cinema). MK was a small publication in all senses of the word: it was printed in A6 format, and in practice Myllymäki was its only active contributor, writing under pseudonyms such as Kai ‘Kaitsu’ Kiiskelä, Retsi Koivusalo, Sirpa ‘Zeri’ Kiiskelä, Kari 22 Ojala and Super-9-the-fire-filmer. Another factor contributing to the emergence of underground amateur cinema was the most famous punk fanzine in Finland, Hilse (Dandruff). It too was published in Hämeenlinna, and Myllymäki admired its combination of primitive style and strength. The articles in MK were personal outpourings, short asides about punk rock, but most of all stories about amateur film-making. With the help of the active alternative press circles, Myllymäki’s propaganda spread throughout the country: “YOUNG PEOPLE ARE FED UP BEING SCREWED, DOUBLE-CROSSED AND CONNED. IT’S ENOUGH TO PISS YOU OFF! It’s time to set your 8-mm camera on automatic fire and record your anger on celluloid.”[63]

芬兰业余电影制作联盟并不欣赏《睡》这部电影,把Myllymäki的电影视作“地下电影”。《睡》受到审查,并被联盟取消了参加部分影展及赛事的资格。就在上一年,《小心开车》(Aja hiljaa, 1978)也遭遇了同样的命运,作为乐队KONTRA的主打歌由的视觉内容,它被称为“一部适合心理年龄12岁的男孩看的公路电影”。Myllymäki被激怒了,他将影片取名为《睡》并在1979年3月创办了一本名叫Maanalainen kaitaelokuva(MK, 地下DIY电影院)的粉丝专刊。不论从何种角度,MK只能算是小型刊物:仅A6开本,且Myllymäki就是其唯一的积极赞助者。他曾使用各种假名,例如Kai ‘Kaitsu’ Kiiskelä、Retsi Koivusalo、Sirpa ‘Zeri’ Kiiskelä、Kari 22 Ojala 及 Super-9-the-fire-filmer(超级九火焰制片人)。另一个导致地下业余电影兴起的因素是芬兰最有名的庞克杂志《头皮屑》(Hilse)。它也在Hämeenlinna发行,Myllymäki欣赏其原始风格和实力的结合。MK的文章是个人流露,庞克摇滚的短旁白,但大部分故事都关于业余的电影制作。借助活跃的另类媒体圈,Myllymäki的宣扬迅速传遍全国:“年轻人厌倦了诈骗、欺骗和欺诈。这足以把你激怒!现在是时候准备好你的8毫米相机,用胶片来表达你的愤怒。”

UFO Rising from the Water (Vedestä nousee ufo, 1979) and How a Mysterious Hitch-Hiker Picks Up Three Stones (Miten salaperäinen liftari poimii kolme kiveä, 1979) are likeable special-effects movies about UFOs, shot upside down, in reverse and at overspeed. They are funny visual gimmicks which even the Federation’s older generation could understand. Thanks to Myllymäki’s tenaciousness, the Federation gradually began screening his films in its competitions. For example, it selected Sleeping, which it had previously rejected, to represent Finland in the avant-garde programmes at Unica in 1979, when the festival was held in Turku. At the same time, Myllymäki wrote satirical columns for Kaitafilmi (DIY Cinema) and Filmaaja (Filmer) magazines published by the Federation.

《露出水面的不明飞行物》(Vedestä nousee ufo, 1979)和《神秘的银河系漫游如何选中三块石头》(Miten salaperäinen liftari poimii kolme kiveä, 1979)是两部关于不明飞行物的讨人喜爱的特效电影,运用颠倒拍摄、反向拍摄和超速拍摄的技巧等有趣的视觉手法,即便是联盟中的老一辈也能理解。多亏Myllymäki的执着,联盟逐渐开始在比赛中放映他的电影。例如最初被他们拒绝的《睡》代表芬兰于1979年前往Unica参加当时在Turku举行的前卫电影节的角逐。与此同时Myllymäki还撰写讽喻专栏发表在《自己动手拍电影》(Kaitafilmi)及《电影人》(Filmaaja)杂志上并通过联盟出版。

Horizontal (1979) is the most mysterious of all Myllymäki’s films. It is a controlled formalist experiment with lights, colours and sound. The background of the film is made up of the swaying hum of an acoustic guitar produced by manipulating the speed of a reel-to-reel tape recorder. A sheet of paper folded into an accordion changes its colour as the lights change. According to Myllymäki, the purpose of the precise synchronisation of the film is to emphasise the underlying “concept of musical notation”.

《地平线》(Horizontal,1979年)是Myllymäki的所有电影中最神秘的一部,被充分控制的灯、色与声的形式主义实验。影片背景通过调节盘式磁带录音机的速度从而引发原木吉他摇曳的嗡嗡声。一张纸折成了一把手风琴,颜色随灯光而变化。Myllymäki认为,精确同步电影的目的在于强调“音乐符号概念”。

Another important forum for Myllymäki was the national MINI Film Festival for amateur movies under three minutes in duration, held annually in Turku. Since there were few opportunities to show films publicly, the official festival for amateur film-makers was a good reason to make two or three new movies. According to Myllymäki, one film in three that was screened at the MINI Festival in Turku in 1980 represented “new wave” cinema.[64]

对Myllymäki而言,全国MINI电影节是另一个重要平台,它针对时长三分钟以内的业余电影,每年在Turku举行一次。由于业余电影制作者很少有机会参与公开放映,于是这一为他们量身打造的官方节日就足以促使他们创作两到三部新电影。Myllymäki说,在1980年的Turku全国MINI电影节放映的每三部电影中,就有一部可以代表“新浪潮”电影。

In response, MK magazine, together with the polytechnic students’ film club Montaasi, soon began hosting the popular “New Wave DIY Film Festivals” that were held in 1980–81 at the Lepakkoluola punk rock venue and the Old Student House in Helsinki and at Dipoli in Espoo. In addition to Myllymäki’s films, around 20 other Super 8 movies were screened at the festivals, including Jarmo Skarp’s I Pogo (Pogoon, 1980), “the first punk movie of Montaasi”; Pro mise en scene (1980), a primitive anti-movie by Erik Sutinen; Chop (1980), a film about street violence by Matti Kanerva; and works by Matti Alpola, Osmo Karttunen and Olli Arola. The new wave films contained a genuine sense of joy in film-making, even though the exponents had not mastered the medium in the traditional sense of the word.

MK杂志及理工学校电影俱乐部 Montaasi迅速作出响应,于1980-1981年举办“新浪潮DIY电影节”,地点位于 Lepakkoluola的朋克摇滚演出点、赫尔辛基的老学生之家和Espoo的Dipoli。除了Myllymäki的电影,大约20部其他超级八影片也在节日期间放映,包括 Jarmo Skarp的《I Pogo》(Pogoon, 1980),“Montaasi的第一部庞克电影”;《Pro mise en scene》(1980),Erik Sutinen的一部原始的反电影;《砍》(Chop,1980),Matti Kanerva的一部关于街头暴力的电影;还有 Matti Alpola、Osmo Karttunen和Olli Arola的电影。新浪潮的电影包含了真正意义上创作电影的喜悦,尽管它的倡导者还未从“掌握”的传统意义上真正掌握这种介质。

A film made entirely without a camera, 5 Holes in Celluloid (5 reikää selluloidissa, 1980) features “the brightest white in the history of cinema”. According to Myllymäki, the film was made by 22 Ojala and Kai Kiiskelä, both familiar from the editorial staff of MK magazine. “The light of the projector hits the silver screen unobstructed in all its whiteness through five bullet holes made directly in the celluloid,” Myllymäki wrote about the concept of the film.[65] On the soundtrack metal tools are slowly being moved on a table. 3000 Cars (3000 autoa, 1980) became instantly a minimalist film classic, and one of Myllymäki’s best-known works. Using stop motion, Laakkonen and Myllymäki shot the front grilles of cars in the parking lots of supermarkets in their home town. Appearing always at the same point in the frame, the headlights create an extraordinary flickering effect as they flash by, frame by frame. A 13-second sequence repeats over and over again until the optimum duration of three minutes is reached. On the soundtrack, the monotonous ticking of Myllymäki’s acoustic guitar is accelerated close to hysteria by increasing the playback speed. Eorba (1980), a nonsense film made in the punk spirit, embraced the motto of MK and Montaasi, “fill the screen with stuff”: “Every movie ever made is much better than any unmade movie!” In this situation any idea or accidental shot was worth exhibiting: “The idea was to make every village self-sufficient in terms of cinema. Going to the cinema is so expensive these days that it’s cheaper to make your own films.”[66]

《胶片的五个洞》(5 reikää selluloidissa, 1980)是一部完全没用摄像机的电影,它是“电影史上最亮的白色”。Myllymäki说,这部影片是由22 Ojala和Kai Kiiskelä完成的,两人作为MK的杂志编辑相互之间非常熟悉。“投影机的光源通过胶片上的五个弹孔直接打在银色屏幕上,所有白光畅通无阻。”Myllymäki如此介绍电影的概念。金属工具正在桌面上缓慢移动以生成电影配乐。《三千辆车》(3000 autoa, 1980)立即成为极简抽象派艺术的经典电影,也是Myllymäki最著名的作品之一。Laakkonen和Myllymäki运用逐帧摄影在家乡的超市停车场拍摄汽车的前灯栅。车头灯总是出现在帧的相同点,随帧一闪而过,从而创造出非凡的闪烁效果。同一个13秒的序列一遍又一遍重复,直到达到最佳的三分钟长度。Myllymäki原木吉他的单调滴答声作为配乐,随着播放速度的加快而接近歇斯底里。《Eorba》(1980)是一部堆满废话的庞克电影,信奉MK和Montaasi的座右铭“把内容充满屏幕”:“每部拍出来的电影总比没拍出来的电影强!”在这种情况下,任何的想法或意外拍摄都值得展示:“当时的想法是让每个小镇在电影方面自给自足。如今去电影院看电影是如此昂贵,自己制作电影会比较便宜。”

Colouring Book. Now (Värityskirja.Nyt, 1980) is one of the most famous of Myllymäki’s pieces. A felt-tip pen is colouring a black-and-white adult comic book. The picture becomes coloured. Nude photos from Playboy magazine are framed to exclude the women’s faces. The scratching on the celluloid starting from their genitals is echoed on the soundtrack. The sound of the rubbing pen segues into the sound of Myllymäki masturbating. As the scratching continues, the people in the picture are replaced by others. “In order to understand the profound message of the film we must realise the symbolic, sexual and biological meaning of the area repeatedly framed into the picture,” Myllymäki stated. [67]Colouring Book.Now is a beautiful film about the yearning to return to the womb, to tenderness and peace. It combines childhood and sexuality with loneliness.”[68] The film was disqualified from national competition. Myllymäki submitted a movie called This Movie Must Not Be Given Any Prize (Tätä elokuvaa ei saa palkita) to the MINI competition in Turku in 1981. The work has subsequently become generally known as Gesture (Ele, 1981). In the stark, overcranked motion study, a man with a black hood over his head (Myllymäki) is sitting on a bench in a park. The hum of an industrial plant (Iittala glassworks) is heard in the distance. The man raises his hand in extremely slow motion and grabs the trunk of a slender birch tree.

《填色。现在》(Värityskirja.Nyt, 1980)是Myllymäki最有名的作品之一。影片中一支记号笔为黑白成人漫画书填色。“花花公子”杂志上的裸体照在取景时就刻意剔除了女性的脸庞。胶片的刮痕从女性的生殖器开始, 配乐随之配合。摩擦笔的声音与Myllymäki自慰的声音相融合。随着胶片的刮动,画面中的人物被他人取代。“为了理解深刻的电影讯息,我们必须认识到重复镜头所包含的象征、性和生物方面的意义,”Myllymäki说。《填色。现在》是一部美丽的电影,它讲述人们渴望回到子宫,重温柔软与和平。它把童年、性与寂寞相结合。”这部影片被取消参加本国比赛的资格。Myllymäki于1981年向Turku的MINI比赛提交了一部名为《千万别颁奖给本片》(Tätä elokuvaa ei saa palkita)的影片。随后,电影更名为《手势》(Ele, 1981)并为人们所熟知。在明显放慢的镜头中,一名带着黑色头套的男子(Myllymäki)坐在公园的长凳上。远处传来工业厂房(Iittala玻璃厂)的嗡嗡声。该名男子极其缓慢地抬起头,抓住一根细长的桦树树枝。

Made with the stop-motion technique, Drive Around the World (Ajo maapallon ympäri, 1981) is a satire on contemporary travel neurosis buoyed up by noise from a short-wave radio receiver. Throbbing Landscape (Värinää maisemassa, 1981) was inspired by the Norman McLarens films that Myllymäki saw at the Tampere Short Film Festival. The film is shot entirely using the time-lapse technique. Life goes past our eyes. In the fleeting landscapes we again see a man (Myllymäki) and the childhood home.

《驶遍全球》(Ajo maapallon ympäri, 1981)使用定格拍制技术, 讽刺了当代旅行的神经官能症,这种症状源自短波无线电接收机的讯息刺激。《悸动的风景》(Värinää maisemassa, 1981)的灵感来自Tampere短片电影节上Norman McLarens 的电影。影片拍摄完全依靠时间推移法,生活从我们眼前划过。在一闪而过的风景中,我们再次看到一名男子(Myllymäki)和童年的家。

Altogether only nine issues of MK magazine were ever published. The MK 4 (1980) and MK 8 (1982) issues “came out” only on Super 8, and MK 6, MK 7 and MK 9 as C cassettes by the band Sleeping & The Beds. MK 4 contained glimpses from new wave concerts, featuring such Finnish artists as Kari Peitsamo, Se, Pelle Miljoona and Eppu Normaali. MK 8 was an “election video” for the non-voters’ candidate Sleeping Myllymäki. In 1980 Laakkonen was on a working visit to Japan, where he made a wonderful short film entitled MK in Japan (Maanalainen kaitaelokuva Japanissa, 1981): he took the magazine he had taken to read on the plane and put it in the hands of passers-by, recording their spontaneous reactions on film.

尽管MK杂志总共只发表了九期,《MK第四期》(1980)与《MK第八期》(1982)只在超级八上发表,而《MK第六期》、《MK第七期》和《MK第八期》作为“睡和床”(Sleeping & The Beds)乐队的C面磁带配套发行。《MK第四期》包含新浪潮演唱会的掠影,介绍了芬兰艺术家Kari Peitsamo、Se, Pelle Miljoona和Eppu Normaali等人。《MK第八期》是一个“选举视频”,主角是非选民候选人“沉睡的Myllymäki”。1980年,Laakkonen前往进行工作访问,在那里他制作了一个精彩的短片,题为《日本的MK》(Maanalainen kaitaelokuva Japanissa, 1981):他拿了本飞机上的刊物,并把它放在路人手中并记录下他们的即兴反应。

The most productive year for Myllymäki and Laakkonen was 1982 when they made no less than 12 movies. The 40-second As Systematic As Sperm (Systemaattinen kuin sperma, 1982) was a “quivering ‘scratchy’ with changing colour backgrounds”. The wailing soundtrack was made by manually turning the reels of a tape recorder. The theme of the anti-censorship piece Five Words (Viisi sanaa 1982) submitted to the Tampere national competition was taken from the pages of the Finnish dictionary: with cool clinical detachment, five Finnish equivalents for the words “cock”, “cunt” and “fuck” are repeated over and over again. Tape Recorder Is a Wonderful Invention (Nauhuri on ihmeellinen keksintö, 1983) is a kind of epilogue in which a viewer pours out the emotional shock of seeing Five Words, the reactions thus resulting in a new film. Song of the Pharisees (Laulu fariseuksista, 1982) is a music video of sorts of the song Jesus Is Castrated Again (Jeesus kuohitaan taas) by Sleeping & The Beds. Consisting of only clear, unexposed film that is scratched and perforated, the viewer’s attraction is drawn to the text concerning double standards and hypocrisy. The parallel work for this is a film about agitated viewer feedback, Talking about Pharisees (Puhe fariseuksista, 1983).

1982年是Myllymäki和Laakkonen最高产的一年,共创作了不下12部电影。40秒钟的《和精子一样系统化》(Systemaattinen kuin sperma, 1982)是一部“背景颜色不断变化的颤抖的‘沙哑’”。配乐中的哀嚎声通过手动旋转卷轴磁带录音机而产生。反审查影片《五个词》(Viisi sanaa,1982)参加过Tampere全国赛事,它的主题源自芬兰词典:五个等同于“阳具”、“阴道”和“性交”的芬兰语单词被一遍又一遍地重复。《录音机是个好发明》(Nauhuri on ihmeellinen keksintö, 1983)记录了观众娓娓道出《五个词》的观后感,这一切都足以拍摄一部新电影。《法利赛人之歌》(Laulu fariseuksista, 1982)是乐队《睡与床》的单曲《耶稣又被阉割了》(Jeesus kuohitaan taas)的MTV。清晰而未经曝光的电影胶片被划伤和穿孔,观众的注意力马上被吸引到与文本相关的双重标准和虚伪。另一部同类影片《谈谈法利赛人》(Puhe fariseuksista, 1983)同样呈现了观众的过激反应。

Myllymäki took his mockery of DIY filmmakers to extremes in the inside movies Café Rose (Kahvila Ruusu, 1982) and 1982 – The Year of Censorship (1982 – sensuurin vuosi, 1982). The purpose of these films was to provoke discussion about the fussy attitude of the Federation towards Myllymäki’s films and writings. The Federation interpreted the polemical attitude of the films as downright insults and intentional agitation. Myllymäki and Laakkonen submitted Café Rose to the competition under the pseudonyms Riitta Lehikoinen and Paula Mäkikylä to make the viewers’ expectations of the film as relaxed as possible.

Myllymäki在影片《玫瑰咖啡》(Kahvila Ruusu, 1982)和《1982年——审查之年》(1982 – sensuurin vuosi, 1982)中针对DIY电影制片人极尽嘲讽之能事。这些影片的目的是探讨联盟对于Myllymäki的电影和著作的挑剔态度。联盟把那些电影好辩的风格理解成彻头彻尾的侮辱和煽动,Myllymäki和Laakkonen利用假名Riitta Lehikoinen和Paula Mäkikylä向比赛组委会提交的片名是《玫瑰咖啡》(Café Rose)以尽量降低观众对影片的期望。

Around this time, the duo’s movies began gaining a more political attitude and a broader scope. SIC (Say It Coyly) (SSU (Sano se ujosti), 1981), Radioactive Vibrations (Radioaktiivista värinää, 1982) and Black Front and End Credits (Mustat alku- ja lopputekstitm 1982) are all about the threat of the nuclear holocaust that was in the air after the catastrophe at the Harrisburg nuclear power plant. The Curse Keeps Its Cruel Course (Kirous jatkaa julmaa kulkuaan, 1983) is another piece by Sleeping & The Beds, a forlorn portrait of indifference that continues across the generations.

此时,两人的电影开始更多涉及政治甚至更广泛的领域。《害羞地说》(SSU (Sano se ujosti), 1981),《放射性振动》(Radioaktiivista värinää, 1982)、《黑色门帘》和《尾声字幕》(Mustat alku- ja lopputekstitm, 1982)都是关于哈里斯堡核电站(Harrisburg nuclear power plant)事故后核污染在空气中的威胁。《诅咒仍是残忍的》(Kirous jatkaa julmaa kulkuaan, 1983)是另一部《睡与床》的影片,描绘了世代延续的令人绝望的冷漠。

The last film to date by Myllymäki is Break break (Murra murra, 1985). It is exceptional in that it was made by Myllymäki alone, without help from Laakkonen. The movie is a jittery stop-motion impression where each frame is different and every second frame is entirely black at the outset. The electronic sounds of Herbie Hancock on the soundtrack are a perfect match for Myllymäki’s kinetic flash experiment. The film was awarded an honorary mention at the Unica festival in, Argentina, in 1985.

迄今为止Myllymäki的最后一部电影是《打破 打破》(Murra murra, 1985)。它的特别之处在于由Myllymäki单独创作,Laakkonen没有参与。这部影片的每一帧都各不相同,而每隔一帧的开头都是黑的。Herbie Hancock在配乐方面的电子声音完美匹配Myllymäki的动能闪光灯实验。该片于1985年在阿根廷的Mar del Plata Unica电影节上被授予荣誉提名奖。

The output of Pasi Myllymäki and Risto Laakkonen presents a disconcerting whole. The degree of cinematic reductionism in the films is unprecedented in Finland. The situation is made all the more extraordinary by the fact that the films were practically never seen at official events, only in reviews by DIY film-makers and in new wave concerts, with some clips broadcast in television reports on youth culture.

Pasi Myllymäki和Risto Laakkonen的作品呈现为一个令人不安的整体。影片中电影还原主义的程度在芬兰是前所未有的。这些影片其实没有在任何官方活动亮相,只有在DIY 电影制作协会以及新浪潮音乐会上展示过,还包括在青年文化电视报道中的一些剪辑播出,这使得这些影片更加特别。

Towards the end of 1982, Claes Söderqvist, a Swedish film-maker and curator of the Moderna Museet in Stockholm, visited Finland in search of interesting short films for the museum’s extensive collections of Nordic film. Having reviewed Finnish films of the period, Söderqvist returned to Sweden with four films by Eino Ruutsalo and no less than ten films by Myllymäki and Laakkonen.[69] The museum enlarged Myllymäki’s films into 16-mm format and purchased them for its permanent film collection. It was from the Moderna Museet that the same ten films ended up being screened in the United States. In a compilation entitled “Vanguard Sweden: Archipelago 8 – Contemporary Swedish (sic) Film & Music” they represented Sweden at The Kitchen in New York city in December 1982 and at Encounter Cinema in Los Angeles in January 1983.

Claes Söderqvist是瑞典电影制作人兼斯德哥尔摩现代美术馆的负责人,他在1982年年底访问芬兰,为北欧电影博物馆的丰富藏品寻找有趣的短片。看完当时芬兰电影之后,他带着四部Eino Ruutsalo的电影以及Myllymäki和Laakkonen的至少十部影片回到瑞典。博物馆把Myllymäki的影片扩大到16毫米格式并纳入其永久电影收藏。多亏了现代美术馆,同样的十部影片在美国放映。1982年12月纽约的The Kitchen与1983年1月洛杉矶的Encounter Cinema举办了一场标题译为“前卫瑞典:群岛8——当代瑞典(原文如此)电影与音乐”的影展,这些影片代表了瑞典。

Myllymäki recalls with amusement how “the fossilised old DIY circles in Finland would not believe their ears until they saw the authentic brochures and sniffed them for a while, apparently doubting their authenticity”.

Myllymäki愉快地回忆道,“老派死脑筋的芬兰DIY电影制作人士不愿相信自己的耳朵,直到他们将官方的手册拿在手里嗅上一会儿,显然是怀疑其权威性。”

IN CONCLUSION

总结

The films discussed in this essay show that in Finland, as elsewhere, the most interesting cinematic experiments have almost invariably been made outside the film industry proper. Their makers are people who come from entirely different areas of artistic practice. For the most part they have lacked all professional qualifications – they are the outsiders of the seventh art.

本文提及的影片反映出最有趣的电影实验,不管在芬兰或者其他地方,几乎无一例外地在电影工业之外创作。他们的制作人来自完全不同的艺术实践领域。在大多数情况下,他们一直缺乏专业资格—— 他们是第七艺术的局外人。

The desire to liberate moving images totally from the tradition of literature and theatre documentation has been ahead of the times in Finland. It was not until the 1980s, when Finnish artists began having access to video cameras, and also through the establishment of the Helsingin elokuvapaja ry (Helsinki Filmmakers’ Co-op), that makers emerged to continue their pioneering work.

人们希望把影像完全从传统的文学和戏剧文档中解放出来,在这方面,芬兰已经跑在了时代的前端。然而芬兰并非一路领先,直到1980年代,芬兰艺术家才开始接触摄像机,同时赫尔辛基制片人合作社(Helsingin elokuvapaja ry)也已成立,此时电影制作人开始了继续他们的先锋性工作。

By Mika Taanila

References:

参考:

von Bagh, Peter, 1978. ”Muistoja”. Filmihullu 1/1978.

Dwoskin, Stephen, 1975. Film Is. The International Free Cinema. Peter Owen Limited, Bristol.

Elovirta, Arja, 1995. “Happening – fragmentteja eräistä tapauksista.” Performance aktio happening. Jälkiä katoavasta taiteesta. Publications of the Department of Art History, University of Helsinki, XIII. Helsinki.

Jarva, Risto, 1961. ”Kuolevaa kauneutta”. Teekkari 2/1961.

Katainen, Elina, 1968. ”Underground-elokuva”. Kino-lehti 3/1968.

Keinonen, Mikko, 1996. ”Tampereen elokuvateatterien historia on värikäs ja dramaattinen”. Aviisi 14.2. 1996.

Kuljuntausta, Petri, 2002. On/Off. Eetteriäänistä sähkömusiikkiin. Like, Kiasma, Helsinki.

Lindfors, Jukka – Salo, Markku, 1998. Ensimmäinen aalto. Helsingin underground 1967-1970. Kustannus Oy Odessa, Porvoo.

Maanalainen kaitaelokuva nro 1, 16.3.1979, Iittala.

Maanalainen kaitaelokuva nro 2, 10.6.1979, Iittala.

Maanalainen kaitaelokuva nro 3, 3.9.1979, Iittala.

Maanalainen kaitaelokuva nro 5, 5.5.1980, Iittala.

Myllymäki, Pasi, 1980a. ”Kaitaelokuvan uusi aalto – taustaa, shokkeja, säpinää”. Uuden ajan aura 1/1980.

Myllymäki, Pasi, 1980b. ”Värityskirja . Nyt – kiistelty super-8”. Kaitafilmi 2/1980.

 

Nordisk Film. 26mars – 10april 1983. Dokumentär – Experiment – Spelfilm 1924–1983. Moderna Museet. Stockholm.

Ojanen, Mikko – Suominen, Jari, 2005. ”Erkki Kurenniemen sähkösoittimet”. Musiikki 3/2005.

Olsson, Christian, 1970. ”Suominen & Rimminen”. Filmihullu 5/1970.

Renan, Sheldon, 1968. The Underground Film. An Introduction To Its Development in America. London: Studio Vista Limited.

Ruutsalo, Eino, 1945. Toropainen tyrmätään. Kirjapaino Aa osakeyhtiö, Helsinki.

Ruutsalo, Eino, 1969. ”Taidekoneet”. Kineettisiä kuvia. Touring exhibition of the Fine Arts Academy of Finland 33/1970. Valtion painatuskeskus.

Ruutsalo, Eino, 1984. ”Gedanken über Experimentalfilme und visuelles Arbeiten”. Visuelle Poesie. Dillinger/Saar: Krüger Druck + Verlag GmbH.

Ruutsalo, Eino, 1988. ”Tekemisen kuvioita”. Expohja ’88. Ruutsalo – maalauksia ja veistoksia. Expohja-yhdistys. Libris Oy, Helsinki.

Ruutsalo, Eino, 1990. ”Kohti kirjoitettua kuvaa”. Kineettisiä runoja, kuvia ja maalauksia. Aquarian Publications. Helsinki.

Ruutsalo, Eino, 1995. Tiiksjärven ilmataistelijat. Sotalentäjästä taiteilijaksi. Tammi, Helsinki.

Ruutsalo, Eino: Kokeiluelokuvia. Photocopy. Ruutsalo’s descriptions of his works. No date. Finnish Film Archive.

Schildt, Göran, 1985. Nykyaika. Alvar Aallon tutustuminen funktionalismiin. Otava, Keuruu.

Suomela, Helena, 1968. ”Millaista elokuvaa”. Filmihullu, sample issue.

Tammi, Eero, 2005. ”Väli, viilto, vihlaus, välähdys – vaikutelmia Eino Ruutsalon elokuvista”. Filmihullu 2/2005.

Tapiovaara, Nyrki, 1938. ”Tienraivaajia”, Elokuva-aitta no 2, 15.1.1938.

The Whole Truth And Nothing But The Truth, team memos, 1968. A4 photocopy. Finnish Film Archive.

Toiviainen, Sakari, 1983. Risto Jarva. Finnish Film Archive. Valtion painatuskeskus, Helsinki.

Toiviainen, Sakari, 1986. Nyrki Tapiovaaran tie. Finnish Film Archive. Valtion painatuskeskus, Helsinki.

Uusitalo, Kari, 1984. Umpikuja? Suomalaisen elokuvan vaikeat vuodet 1964-1969. Finnish Film Foundation publications no 15, Hyvinkää 1984.

Valo ja liike, 1968. Catalogue no 28. Amos Anderson Art Museum. Oy Tilgmann Ab, Helsinki.

Widén, Peter, 1970. ”Filmille siirretty energiaa”. Iiris 9/1970.

Audiovisual records:

Dawn of Dimi. Ed. Mika Taanila, dvd, 2003, Kinotar Oy, Helsinki.

Matias Keskisen kuviteltu elämä. Director: Veli Granö, video, 1991, Kimmo Koskela Ky, Lahti.

Seikkailu ihmisessä: Risto Jarva. Design: Liisa Horelli, Matti Paavilainen, tv programme, YLE TV1, Helsinki.

Tulevaisuus ei ole entisensä. Director: Mika Taanila, 35-mm film, 2002, Kinotar Oy, Helsinki.

 

口述材料:

2001–2005年间交流与采访: Erkki Kurenniemi

2006春夏交流与采访:Timo Aarniala, Peter von Bagh, Veli Granö, Pirjo Honkasalo, Eila Kaarresalo-Kasari, Ilkka Kippola, Matti Kuortti, Anne Laitinen, Jukka Lindfors, Timo Linnasalo, J.O. Mallander, Pasi Myllymäki, Anton Nikkilä, M.A. Numminen, Perttu Rastas, Helena Ruutsalo, Ismo Sajakorpi, Erkki Seiro, Eero Tammi, Mikko Tuori, Erik Uddström, Kirsi Väkiparta, Peter Widén, Kari Yli-Annala, Jaakko Ylinen, Herbert Yrjölä.


[1] 本文的作品标题译自芬兰原文,而原标题则在括号中标出,除非影片原标题即是英文。

[2] 标题另有英译为《海报贴》。


[1] Ruutsalo, 1969, 11.

[2] Schildt 1985, 114.

[3] Dwoskin 1975, 28.

[4] Renan 1968, 64.

[5] Schildt 1985, 115.

[6] Tapiovaara 1938, 29.

[7] Toiviainen 1986, 116.

[8] Von Bagh 1978, 12.

[9] Toiviainen 1983, 50–51.

[10] Jarva 1961, 28.

[11] Toiviainen 1983, 79.

[12] Seikkailu ihmisessä: Risto Jarva. YLE TV1, 1971.

[13] Elovirta 1995, 64.

[14] Information about Keskinen’s imaginary films in this article are also from Veli Granö.

[15] Elovirta 1995, 76.

[16] Letter from Blomstedt to the writer 2 March 2006.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ruutsalo 1995, 119–120.

[19] Ruutsalo 1945, 51.

[20] Kuljuntausta 2002, 580.

[21] Ruutsalo 1988, 20.

[22] Ruutsalo 1984, 90.

[23] Tammi 2005, 32.

[24] Tammi 2005, 33.

[25] Ruutsalo 1990, 7.

[26] Ruutsalo 1984, 92.

[27] Ruutsalo 1995, 57–59.

[28] Ruutsalo. Kokeiluelokuvia photocopy.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Ruutsalo 1990, 8.

[35] Valo ja liike 1968, 17.

[36] Ruutsalo 1984, 94.

[37] Kuljuntausta 2002, 581–582.

[38] Ruutsalo 1984, 92.

[39] Ruutsalo: Kokeiluelokuvia photocopy.

[40] According to the Finnish Board of Film Classification, Peter Widén’s 8-mm film Edited Copy (Leikattu kopio, 1968) was screened at Kulttuuritalo. Herbert Yrjölä‘s 16-mm Unedited Copy (Leikkaamaton kopio, 1968) was not screened, because the Board prohibited it for being “indecent and improper”. According to Yrjölä, in his stop-motion film, “people kept popping up as flashes in all sorts of situations”.

[41] Lindfors – Salo 1998, 32.

[42] Fragments of Kurenniemi’s shorts were included in this writer’s documentary The Future Is Not What It Used to Be (Tulevaisuus ei ole entisensä, 2002). Six of them were published later on in a DVD collection of work by Kurenniemi entitled Dawn of Dimi (2003). Kurenniemi’s films have subsequently been screened also at film festivals and other functions.

[43] Ojanen, Suominen 2005, 20.

[44] Katainen 1968, 15.

[45] Lindfors – Salo 1988, 34.

[46] On the record sleeve, the song is ascribed to The Velvet Underground, even though John Cale apparently played it alone using an electric guitar and feedback. Aspen, December 1966, VOL. 1, NO. 3, edited by Andy Warhol.

[47] Suomela 1968, 14.

[48] Widén 1970, 26.

[49] This was probably Hjärtat brinner (1967), a film directed by Lundsten.

[50] Lindfors – Salo 1998, 135.

[51] Widén 1970, 26.

[52] Lindfors – Salo 1998, 135.

[53] Notes of The Whole Truth team.

[54] Uusitalo 1984, 238.

[55] Lindfors – Salo 1988, 194.

[56] Uusitalo 1984, 380.

[57] Keinonen 1996, 22.

[58] Olsson, 1970, 17.

[59] MK 3, 1979, 5.

[60] Myllymäki 1980a, 27.

[61] MK 1, 1979, 6.

[62] Myllymäki 1980a, 28.

[63] MK 2, 1979, 3.

[64] Myllymäki 1980a, 28.

[65] Myllymäki 1980a, 28.

[66] MK 5, 1980, 18.

[67] Myllymäki 1980b, 14.

[68] Myllymäki 1980a, 29.

[69] Nordisk Film, 1983, 12-30.

About the Artists and Films

Seppo Renvall: Planet EarthEncyclopedia (1995, 6:05)

This work is based on pictures from a series of twelve books dating from 1912. The music is a film score from the same year: A Gruesome Tale, composed by J. S. Zcemecnik and performed by Aslak Christiansson. The film presents rapid-fire juxtapositions of pictures taken from the books, collating landscapes with indigenous people, towns and cornfields. It makes one aware of the pointlessness and violence of classifications. The work lays bare the hidden ideological structure of the encyclopedia, and also corroborates a chapter of humanity’s history.

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Seppo Renvall (b. 1963) works in experimental film, video and photography. His films are characterized by repetition and rhythm, cyclic images and sounds, and their simultaneity creates a powerful, polyphonic presence. Renvall’s work also extends to happenings, performances and music.

Roi Vaara: Artist’s Dilemma, 1997 (3:36 min)

Artist’s Dilemma is a performance made to be filmed with a 16mm film camera in one take. The performance took place on the frozen sea about 50km east of Helsinki, in temperatures of minus 30 degrees Centigrade. The chilling beauty of the landscape is undercut by the absurd figure of the indecisive artist trying to decide which road to take – art to the left or life to the right.

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One of Finland’s best known performance artists, Roi Vaara (b. 1953) embraces social, political and ecological themes. Vaara’s performances are usually made for a specific place and the audience in that place. Shared time is consequently an important element in them. Sometimes his ideas cannot be acted out in this way, however. In such cases he performs for ‘a single eye’, the camera, which is generally stationary, simply recording the event as in Artist’s Dilemma. Vaara does not manipulate the image with camera angles or editing – he reduces the event to one single take. The eye of a video is restricted compared to the human eye, and as such, the picture is clearly framed.

Salla Tykkä: Power, 1999 (4:15)

In Power by Salla Tykkä two people are boxing: a young woman without a shirt and a big man. The black and white image and the timeless space make the atmosphere dream-like; the hard action and sounds, however, refer to real life and pain. Power is a statement against the power relations in our society, but it can also be seen as a symbolic battle for life and survival.

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In her early films and videos Salla Tykkä (b. 1973) tells short stories about the transition from childhood to adulthood and relations between the sexes which elude unambiguous interpretation in their enigmatic ambivalence and complexity. An atmospheric visual aesthetic, the skilled use of well-known film music, her play on allusions and memories generate lasting tension and a sense of foreboding and uncertainty.

www.sallatykka.com

Liisa Lounila: Flirt, 2001 (5:00)

Flirt stages ambiguous scenes of hostility in which people either fight or embrace each other in pairs. The combinations change so that one actor from the previous scene always remains in the next scene. The film is set in a pitch-black space and the action is suspended in time. The camera seems to circle around the protagonists, accompanied by an eerie soundtrack that produces a feeling of impending drama or joy.  Flirt as many of Lounila´s video works, shares the time-slice camera technique, where 528 pictures are shot simultaneously using a home-made pinhole camera. Lounila’s use of temporal suspension and atmospheric sound is clearly intended to heighten the emotional charge, which brings it close to the language of television commercials and movie trailers. The bullet-time effect converts the films’ scenes into slices of a larger narrative. Once combined, these techniques give rise to expectations of a totality that nevertheless remain undefined.

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The subjects chosen by Liisa Lounila (b. 1976) for her work include unexplained aviation accidents, crime scenes and plot twists from action films. Lounila uses a range of media in her works – text, painting, photography, video – as means of testing new ground.

http://www.scenemissing.net/

A Monument for Invisible. 2003. Directed by Anu Pennanen: 12:23 min.

A Monument for the Invisible is a part of the Monument Project, in which Pennanen investigates Helsinki’s urban environment from a blind person’s perspective. This way, she by-passes the usual emphasis on the visual coding of contemporary urban space, which is now framed in a more intuitive manner. The blind Johanna wanders around different parts of the cityscape—the high-tech business area, dominated by the emblematic glass-and-steel office towers, and a construction site where preparations for a large glass shopping mall are being done. Pennanen’s view of the city (subtly underlined by a stark, minimal electronic soundtrack) is distant and slightly inhuman, bare and shiny, but at the same time offering a seductive aesthetic experience. Long, slow pans and tilts caress the architecture’s geometric surfaces, and through aesthetic framing the artist emphasizes the effect of formal repetition and uniformity in today’s architecture. The relatively short  film has a subtle narrative build-up, that shows the main character ultimately creating her own space in the emphatically three-dimensional environment.

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Anu Pennanen’s  (b. 1975) work has concentrated on urban public space and its relation to cinema and media. Collaborative and site-specific interaction with people allow her to involve her subjects as mirrors and investigators of the built environment in her films.

www.anupennanen.com

Jani Ruscica: Batbox/Beatbox, 2007 (18:00)

Batbox/Beatbox is a pair of experimental short films by Jani Ruscica which physically reveal the limitations of human vision. The two films juxtapose very dissimilar environments: nature depicted through bats’ nightly echolocation, and the urban metropolis of NYC, navigated by hip-hop artists. These are two radically different ways of using sound and movement as tools to navigate and identify one’s environment. Ruscica took the sounds of horseshoe-bats recorded for Batbox, and asked the beatbox artists shown in Beatbox to use them as a stepping stone for musical improvisation. In Batbox, the sound and movement are biological phenomena, in Beatbox they are cultural. The searchlight that shines through the woods through which the bats fly, reminds us of our own, human blindness in the dark; whereas the spotlight that highlights the suburban streets, basketball courts and subway tracks in Beatbox reveal the urban space as a stage. In the course of the film, the personal and local environment of the beatboxers becomes universal; the mundane becomes epic, reflecting the core of hip-hop culture.

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Jani Ruscica (b.1978) is an artist working with film, video, photography and other media.
Ruscica works collaboratively, his interest lies in how one defines one’s location, one’s placement in the world, and how this definition changes – continuously, if necessary – according to personal, cultural, representational or even scientific factors. Ruscica’s self reflexive works explore the intersection between cinema, video art, theatre and performance.

www.janiruscica.com

Adel Abidin: Bread of Life, 2008 (00:06:34)

In some cultures, bread is considered the source of life, therefore treated as a holy object; something to be respected and not joked about. As Abidin visited a restaurant in Cairo, he was served this bread that seemed more suitable for playing music with than to be eaten – it was so hard it made a pleasant sound, like an instrument. The artist gathered four percussion musicians who earn their living by playing music for belly dancers in nightclubs. He approached them with this ironic idea to play with bread – the source of life.

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Adel Abidin’s (b. 1973) works usually employ few words, but his pictures are all the more powerful and eloquent for it. Abidin often brings an ironic attitude to bear on everyday prejudices and stereotypes, deconstructing the increasingly predominant ethos of either/or.

www.adelabidin.com

Mika Taanila, Optical Sound, 2007(6:00)

Office technology becomes obsolete very quickly. Old tools transform into musical instruments. The film is based on the Symphony # 2 for 12 Dot Matrix Printers, composed by [The User]. Experimental short film Optical sound continued the series of films by Mika Taanila which deal with technology, humanity, and futuristic ideas.

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In his practice, Mika Taanila (b. 1966) works fluently in the fields of documentary film, music video and the visual arts. His documentary films, for example, address the alarming issues related to human engineering and artificial urban surroundings. Nevertheless, visually, Taanila’s films are outside the documentary mainstream canon.

Sasha Huber, Rentyhorn, 2008, 4:31 

As a member of the Transatlantic Committee “De-mounting Louis Agassiz” Sasha Huber carried a metal plaque bearing a graphic representation of the slave Renty to the top of an Alpine peak, the Agassizhorn (3946 metres), on the borders of the Swiss cantons of Berne and Valais. In so doing, she took the first step towards renaming the mountain.  This act commemorates the fact that the Swiss-born naturalist and glaciologist Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) was an influential racist and pioneering thinker of apartheid, and that the Agassizhorn should be renamed the “Rentyhorn” in honour of the Congolese-born slave Renty, and of those who met similar fates. Agassiz ordered Renty to be photographed on a South Carolina plantation, “to prove the inferiority of the black race”. After carrying out this artistic act, the Transatlantic Committee “De-Mounting Louis Agassiz” and she submitted a request for the plaque to be permanently fixed to the rocks on the summit, and for the mountain to be renamed.  The has carried out this work in close collaboration with Hans Fässler, historian, author and founder of the Transatlantic Committee “De-mounting Louis Agassiz”. More about “De-Mounting Louis Agassiz” at: www.louverture.ch.

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Sasha Huber (b. 1975) uses various media including video, photography, drawing, intervention and stapling. Being of European and Haitian heritage, she allies herself with the Caribbean Diaspora. The starting point for her work is an examination of her roots and of how this affects the process of constructing her personal and artistic identity. The journey began as a reaction against the historical injustice of colonialism. But, as her work progressed, this was gradually transformed into a quest for understanding and a more interactive dialogue. 

www.sashahuber.com

Jan Ijäs, Two Islands, 2013 (05:58)

The film is about two enormous rubbish dumps in New York’s Staten Island and Hart Island. The former was once the world’s largest rubbish dump but is now closed. The latter is a cemetery for unknowns and still in use. “Two Islands” bluntly asks, what does the existence of the two huge mountains of economic and social waste and rejected surplus tell us about our civilization and about the “richest nation in the world”, and what kind of legacy will the future archaeologists find in them?

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Film-maker and media-artist Jan Ijäs (b. 1975) is a artist of lens-based art, both still and moving. The films of Ijäs tend to break the traditional boundaries of fictive and documentary films. Ijäs’s work is often displayed as gallery installations rather than in traditional movie venues incorporated with still images and text works. Ijäs’s, sometimes even humorous works, deal with serious and difficult social themes, like migration into foreign and hostile societies.

关于参展艺术家及其影片

Seppo Renvall: 《地球百科全书》Planet EarthEncyclopedia, 1995 (6:05)

这件作品缘于1912年出版的一套12本百科全书中的照片。配乐则来自同年发行的电影原声碟《一个可怕的故事》(A Gruesome Tale),由J. S. Zcemecnik作曲,Aslak Christiansson演奏。画面中同时快速切换着多张照片,均来自这套百科全书,其中有风景、土著人的肖像、城镇和玉米田。它们让人意识到阶级主义的暴力与空虚。影片揭示了百科全书所暗藏的意识形态结构,并确证了一段人性的历史。

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Seppo Renvall (b. 1963) 致力于实验电影、录像与摄影的创作。其影像以重复与节奏著称,通过图像与声音的循环,彰显其同步感,从而创造出强有力的和弦式存在。Renvall的作品还延展至偶然、表演与音乐。

Roi Vaara: 《艺术家的两难困境》Artist’s Dilemma, 1997 (3:36)

《艺术家的两难困境》(Artist’s Dilemma) 是一部表演实录影片,以16mm电影摄录机一镜到底拍摄下来。表演现场位于赫尔辛基以东5万米的冰冻海面,当地气温仅零下30摄氏度。冰天雪地的美景被艺术家的犹豫不决所打扰,这副古怪的画面表现了艺术家正试着决定走哪一条路:艺术向左,生活向右。

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Roi Vaara (b. 1953) 是芬兰最知名的表演艺术家,关注社会、政治与生态议题。Vaara常根据特定场地及其观众定制演出。共享的时间是其作品中常见的元素。然而他的想法不总都能实现,这时他会选择为“独眼”——摄像机表演,因为这枚“眼睛”总是静止的,单纯地记录下眼前所发生的一切,正如《艺术家的两难困境》。Vaara从不会刻意转换相机的拍摄镜头或剪辑方式——而将其动作简化到一镜到底的单纯拍摄。录像机之眼相较人类之眼所存有的局限使图像本身总存于一个清晰的框阈之内。

Salla Tykkä: 《权利》Power, 1999 (4:15)

在Salla Tykkä的作品《权利》(Power)中,两个人在打拳击:一个是上身裸露的年轻女子,一个是身材魁梧的男子。黑白画面与貌似永恒的空间设置让这幅场景仿若梦幻;然而激烈的动作与声响则将观者拉回现实生活与痛苦。《权利》是指向社会中权力关系的反对宣言,亦可被视作为了生活与生存的一场象征性的角斗。

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Salla Tykkä (b. 1973) 的早期影像作品通常讲述关于青少年向成人的成长转变、或两性关系的简短故事,刻意回避对其神秘的矛盾心和复杂性的明确诠释。影片洋溢着一种视觉的美感,显见其对知名影片配乐驾轻就熟的运用,及其通过典故与回忆而阐发出的经久不衰的张力和某种不祥预感或不确定性。

www.sallatykka.com

 

Liisa Lounila: 《调情》Flirt, 2001 (5:00)

《调情》(Flirt)呈现出伴侣之间或勾心斗角、或你侬我侬的模棱两可的敌意。伴侣的排列组合始终在变,上一场景的两位演员之一总会继续出演下一场景。场景的空间是全黑的,画面中演员的动作在空间中悬置。摄影机始终围绕着主角们,画面伴随着一股怪异的配乐,营造出戏剧冲突抑或喜悦即将发生的感觉。《调情》作为Lounila众多影像作品之一,亦采用“时间切片”摄影技术,即将528台自制针孔摄像机排列成圆环,在主角的动作触发快门时,这528台摄像机同时拍摄,而产生的一圈胶片连环放映时则形成了一部迷你影片,但其中的主角在当刻的动作看似则是凝固的。Lounila对实践悬置及音乐渲染的使用旨在强调作品对观者情感的感染力。时间如子弹穿梭而过的观感将影片场景转换为某种更宏观的叙事之中的几道切片。当这些切片组合在一起,这种摄影技术所唤醒的是对某种并未被定义的整体感的期待。

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Liisa Lounila (b. 1976) 所选择的创作主题涵盖未被披露的航空事故、犯罪现场与动作影片的曲折情节。Lounila的创作媒介丰富多样,从文本、绘画到摄影、影像,并始终都在尝试新的媒介。

http://www.scenemissing.net/

Anu Pennanen:《为不可见而设的纪念碑》A Monument for Invisible, 2003, (12:23)

《为不可见而设的纪念碑》(A Monument for the Invisible)是“纪念碑项目”(Monument Project)的一部分,导演Pennanen在项目中通过一个盲人的视角探索了赫尔辛基的城市环境。她超越了通常对当代都市空间的视觉解读,而赋予镜头更强的直觉。盲女Johanna彷徨在都市街头,从立满典型的玻璃和钢结构的摩天办公楼的高科技商业区,到下一座全玻璃结构的大型购物商场的施工工地。Pennanen镜头中的城市(在僵硬而极简的电子音乐的微妙衬托下)显得遥远而漠然,一味地平坦光滑,但同时却独具一种颇诱惑人的美感。长而缓慢的平移与斜推镜头抚摸着建筑的几何立面,艺术家通过其审美的取景框高亮出当今建筑的重复与均质。这部不算长的影片包含着某种微妙的叙事结构,吐露出在这太过三维的立体环境中,主人公终究是在建构独属于她自己的空间。

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Anu Pennanen (b. 1975) 的作品聚焦城市公共空间,及其同摄像与媒体的关系。互动合作与特定场地的创作方式让她得以将其主题作为映射面、探索者,在其影片中观察、反映周遭人造的环境。

www.anupennanen.com

 

Jani Ruscica: 《蝙蝠盒/口技盒》Batbox/Beatbox, 2007 (18:00)

Jani Ruscica的《蝙蝠盒/口技盒》(Batbox/Beatbox)是一组实验短片,揭露出人类视界的局限。两部影片分别呈现了截然不同的环境:通过捕捉蝙蝠在夜间的回声定位所描画的自然场景,及嘻哈艺术家导览的大都市纽约。两者通过对声音及动作截然不同的采用方式,探索并定位所处的环境。Ruscica将马蹄蝙蝠的叫声辑录下来作为《蝙蝠盒》的配乐,同时要求口技艺术家在《口技盒》中演出,将其作为即兴音乐的出发点。在《蝙蝠盒》中,相应的声音与动作都是生物现象;在《口技盒》中,则是文化。聚光灯影下飞过的蝙蝠身影让我们联想到自身,即人类在黑暗中的盲视;而城市街头、篮球场与地铁站的聚光灯则揭露出城市空间作为舞台的本质。在《口技盒》中充满个人与当地风格的表演显得普世;化平凡为非凡,也反映着嘻哈文化的本质。

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Jani Ruscica (b.1978) 是一名跨越电影、录像、摄影及其他媒介创作的艺术家。Ruscica的创作关注人对自身的定位,及其根据性格、文化、投射或科学要素而持续发生的转变。Ruscica的自省创作探索了摄影、录像、戏剧与表演的交集。

www.janiruscica.com

Adel Abidin: 《生命的面包》Bread of Life, 2008 (00:06:34)

在某些文化中,面包被认为是生命之源,因而被当作神圣之物;是必须尊重的,而不能随便拿来开玩笑。正如Abidin在开罗探访的一家餐厅,当地对所珍藏的面貌弹琴唱歌,却不舍得下口——面包已经风干了,可以拿它发出响声,好像一件乐器。艺术家召集了四位打击乐手,他们都以在夜总会为肚皮舞者伴奏为生。他不无嘲讽地请乐手以面包——这生命之源作为乐器进行演奏。

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Adel Abidin (b. 1973) 的作品常寡言少语,但画面却铿锵有力。Abidin常以嘲讽的态度披露日常的偏见与成见,解构日益增长的被动选择的主导风气。

www.adelabidin.com

Mika Taanila, 《光学声》Optical Sound, 2007 (6:00)   

科学技术日新月异。将旧工具改装为乐器。以12型点阵印刷机演奏了由“用户”谱曲的第二交响曲的实验短片《光学声响》(Optical sound)继承了Mika Taanila探讨科技、人性与未来创想的一系列影片。

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Mika Taanila (b. 1966) 在纪实影片、音乐录像带与视觉艺术领域造诣颇高。如其纪实影片往往向人类工程与人造城市环境敲响警钟。然而,Taanila的纪实影片的画面表达却超越了主流纪实影片的常规。

Sasha Huber, 《任望角》Rentyhorn, 2008, (4:31) 

作为跨大西洋委员会“拆路易斯.阿加西的台”分会的会员,Sasha Huber带着一张绘有奴隶任蒂(Renty)肖像的金属板来到了位于伯尔尼和瓦莱之间的瑞士峡谷区阿尔卑斯山脉的Agassizhorn山峰(海拔3946米)的山顶,并将山峰改名。原山峰名本为纪念瑞士裔自然学家、冰川学家路易斯.阿加西(Louis Agassiz, 1807-1873),他是臭名昭著的种族主义者、种族隔离制度的倡导者;而Agassizhorn应改名为《任望角》(Rentyhorn)以纪念刚果出生的奴隶任蒂(Renty)及其遭受类似命运的同胞们。当年,阿加西命任蒂在南卡罗来纳州的种植园拍了一张照片,以“证明黑种人的自卑”。在实践了上述艺术行动之后,跨大西洋委员会“拆路易斯.阿加西的台”分会与Sasha Huber本人提交了申请,希望将这块金属铭牌永久保留在山顶,并将山峰改名。她的这件作品同跨大西洋委员会“拆路易斯.阿加西的台”分会的创始人、历史学家、作家Hans Fässler合力完成。关于“拆路易斯.阿加西的台”分会的更多详情,敬请查询:www.louverture.ch.

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Sasha Huber (b. 1975) 的创作媒介十分广泛,从录像、摄影、绘画、介入到装订艺术(艺术家特有的一种工作方式)。作为欧洲与海地的后裔,她将自己同加勒比散居地紧密相连。其创作的出发点是对其祖先的考察,及其身世如何影响其个人和艺术身份的构建。她的旅程则始于对殖民主义的历史性不公正提出反抗。然而随着其创作的深入,这一过程逐渐转变为对理解与更为互动性的对话的诉求。www.sashahuber.com

Jan Ijäs, 《两个岛屿》Two Islands, 2013 (05:58)

本片的对象是分别位于纽约史泰登岛和哈特岛的两个巨型垃圾场。前者曾是世界上规模最大的垃圾场,如今业已关闭。后者是专供埋葬无名氏的墓地,目前仍在使用。《两个岛屿》厉声质问人类文明、及美国这座“全球最富国”,两座经济与社会垃圾和被遗弃的多余者的大山,究竟意味着什么?而未来的考古学家们,又能从中找到怎样的远古传说?

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Jan Ijäs (b. 1975) 是一名基于镜头进行创作的电影制作人和媒体艺术家,作品动静皆宜。Ijäs试图打破叙事片与纪实片的传统界限;其作品的展示与流通也大多经过艺术机构的渠道,而非传统的电影发行模式;其影像装置也会包含静止的图像与文本。Ijäs时而幽默的作品,却旨在探讨严峻的社会问题,例如迁往外国或敌对社会的移民。

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One Response to Art From the North

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